To begin with, criminal justice is a system that is designed to maintain social control, which means it is a necessary aspect of every society since “Laws are the conditions under which independent and isolated men united to form a society” (Beccaria, 1764: 16). In order words, crime control deals with the methods that are taken by a society to reduce its crime. As a matter of fact, there are various crime control strategies from community policing to risk assessments. In addition to the different tactics for controlling crime, there are several theories that not only attempt to explain the causes of crime, but also outline different ways to handle offenders; for example, deterrence, rehabilitation, and even retribution. Now, it is important to realize that there is no perfect model for crime control since there are advantages and disadvantages to every system. With this in mind, it is clear that the crime control has changed throughout recent decades, and one can easily identify these changes by drawing from situations that involve race, gender, and two theoretical perspectives.
Firstly, the problems with crime control are not nearly as bad as they once were; however, one can see that some issues still exist by examining crimes that deal with the race of an offender. With this in mind, the main objective of the criminal justice is to establish the factual guilt of the accused, which means that it was also designed to protect society by vindicating victims’ rights. Although this may be true, it does not change the fact that prejudice does exist in the justice system, and this occurs because judges are given a certain amount of discretion when deciding on the outcome of case. For example, Katz (1988:177) states th...
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...nd race. In other words, race and gender have an effect on crime considering there is not only a clear distinction between the types of crimes, but also the frequency of crime being committed. Furthermore, psychological positivism suggests that crime is the result of mental disorders and ineffective parenting, which goes completely against the classical idea that people choice to become criminals. In addition to biological and psychological elements, there are the social factors that can influence people to engage in criminal activity. As a matter of fact, social and economic pressures play a major role in the cause of crime since people are more likely to break the law when they have nothing else to lose. Therefore, the biological, psychological, and social factors should all be considered when trying to establish a reason for every crime.
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