One of the most prominent theories used today by criminologist to explain the variations in crime rates across communities is social disorganization theory in which was developed during the year of 1942, by Clifford Shaw and Henry D. McKay, two criminology researchers from the Chicago School of criminology. Social disorganization theory sought to link certain neighborhood characteristics, such as residential mobility, heterogeneity of a population, and socioeconomic status, to crime rates by studying the impact that characteristics have on a neighborhoods ability to institute social control and crime prevention strategies.
As mentioned above, social disorganization theory was originally founded by Clifford Shaw and Henry D. McKay during the early 1940’s, however, the focus on structural causes of crime emerged early in the Europe during the early nineteenth century (Akers and Sellers, 2013). Both Adolphe Quetelet and Andre-Michel Gurrey used French crime data to investigate structural sources of crime during the early nine...
... middle of paper ...
... data, in confection with official records, when empirically testing this theory (Kurbin, 2009).
Lastly, a final criticism in which social disorganization has faced is researcher’s ongoing challenge to empirically test mediating factors, such as social ties, social control, collective efficacy and social control, due to a reliance on official data (Kurbin, 2009). Byrne and Sampson (1986) noted that due to the lack of attention paid to the processes that often mediate the effect of community characteristics, a major conceptional limitation of ecological research had presented (As cited in Kurbin, 2009). There have only been a handful of studies to successfully document the theoretical processes in which have been laid out by social disorganization theory, that suggest the process may in fact be as straightforward as Shaw and McKay claimed it to be (Kurbin, 2009).
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Two of the major criminological theories of the twentieth century are Merton’s strain/anomie theory and Shaw and McKay’s social disorganization. Both theories were very important in their time, and still influence theorization today. This paper will discuss both theories and point out similarities and differences. Robert Merton created his strain/anomie theory with a large influence from Emile Durkheim’s anomie theory. Durkheim stated that anomie is the “normlessness or deregulation” of society.... [tags: Robert Merton, Social Disorganization]
1043 words (3 pages)
- Claude McKay's "Harlem Shadows" During the Harlem Renaissance, the black body was considered exotic and the "flavor" of the week. Society had an obsession towards black women, in general, blackness. However, the white race wanted to listen to their music, mingle with the women, and enjoy the other finer luxuries that the black society could afford. Even the art was captured by this idea of the exotic and contentment in being "black." The masquerade began as members of the white race tried to pass as black and during that experience gain some satisfaction from their own lost and confused existence.... [tags: Harlem Shadows Claude McKay Essays]
1384 words (4 pages)
- Walking Across Egypt Mattie Rigsbee is the main character in Clyde Edgerton's southern style novel, Walking Across Egypt. Mattie is a seventy-eight year old widow with two middle-aged children. Living alone in a small house, she makes sure that everything is taken care of. Although begins to display some signs of aging, and her family is trying to convince her to slow down her lifestyle, Mattie's character and mind setting prohibits her from becoming the stereotypical elder. She must make a decision in which direction to turn.... [tags: Walking Across Egypt Essays]
651 words (1.9 pages)
- Usage of the Outsider Theme in Claude McKay's Poetry Claude McKay was an important figure during the 1920's in the Harlem Rennaisance. Primarily a poet, McKay used the point of view of the outsider as a prevalent theme in his works. This is best observed in such poems as "Outcast," "America," and "The White House." In these poems, McKay portrays the African-American as the outsiderof western society and its politics and laws and at times, the very land that he is native to. McKays's poem, "Outcast," is the most obvious example of this outsider theme.... [tags: Papers Claude McKay Outsider Poetry]
758 words (2.2 pages)
- Shaw and McKay’s social disorganization theory had a profound impact on the study of the effects of urbanization, industrialization and immigration in Chicago neighborhood on crime and delinquency rates. However, Shaw and McKay faced much criticism when they first released their findings. One criticism of the social disorganization theory had to do with researcher’s ability to accurately test the social disorganization theory. Although Shaw and McKay collected data on characteristics of areas and delinquency rates for Chicago communities and were able to visually demonstrate a relationship between by using maps and other visuals, their research did not have an actually test that went along w... [tags: Sociology, Crime, Police, Criminology]
1145 words (3.3 pages)
- Analysis of Walking Across Egypt by Clyde Edgerton Mattie Rigsbee is the main character in Clyde Edgerton's southern style novel, Walking Across Egypt. Mattie is a seventy-eight year old widow with two middle-aged children. Living alone in a small house, she makes sure that everything is taken care of. She cooks, cleans, mows the lawn, and takes up numerous responsibilities with the church. She is a very caring person with many friends and a family that loves her dearly. At the time this novel takes place, Mattie is at a turning point in her life.... [tags: Clyde Edgerton Walking Across Egypt Essays]
944 words (2.7 pages)
- Hugh Willoughby’s Across the Everglades Despite the overall opinion of our class, I enjoyed Hugh Willoughby’s Across the Everglades. The short history he provided and the description of his journey through mangroves and saw grass was both enlightening and entertaining. He offered insight into the historical part of Florida that we, in 2004, will never know of by first hand experience. Willoughby’s journal was also the perfect handbook for an Everglades class canoe trip. From the intricate metaphors he weaves into his facts to the influence of opinion behind those facts, Willoughby’s work captures the minds of his readers.... [tags: Willoughby Across Everglades]
1033 words (3 pages)
- During the 1840’s and 1850’s America experienced its golden age in shipping and sailing.1 At the front of this era was Donald McKay whose innovative ship designs lead to the numerous sea speed records, some of which stand today. For most of the early 19th century American ship building consisted of merchant and cargo ships. It took a long time for these ships to sail across seas. With the increased speed came decreased time to wait for pay. Another need for increased speed was the California gold rush of 1849.... [tags: essays research papers fc]
1413 words (4 pages)
- The Life of Henry Ford Henry Ford once said, “I will build a motorcar for the masses…constructed of the best materials, by the best me to be hired, after the simplest designs that modern engineering can devise…so low in price that no man making a good salary will be unable to own one and enjoy with his family the blessing of hours of pleasure in God’s great open spaces.” (Willamette 1) This is one of his most memorable yet earliest public quotes in history, that can easily sum up his whole life.... [tags: Henry Ford Automobiles Transportation Essays]
1437 words (4.1 pages)
- Henry James In August of 1904, after more than two decades abroad, the sixty-year-old Henry James returned to the United States for a year. While William James had famously remarked that his brother was "a native of the James family" (W James 517), with little else in the way of national affiliation, Henry considered himself as American as ever after his twenty years in Europe. The book he wrote about his American journey was titled The American Scene only because James's first choice had been taken; he would have preferred to call it The Return of the Native. But James's sense of himself as a native, as one at home in the United States, was shaken by his alienating experie... [tags: American Scence Henry James Essays]
3090 words (8.8 pages)