In 1995, Sampson and Julius Wilson conducted an empirical research in order to measure the relationship between crime, racial inequality, and social isolation. They noted that culture and structure should be considered when measuring crime and explain that sub cultures exist in disorganized communities as mode of adaptation to poverty (Sampson and Wilson, 1995). Also, Sampson and Wilson (1995) explain that race is not factor that causes criminal behavior, but rather social economic status. Similar crime rates were discovered between Black and Whites with similar income. The reason African American account for a higher percentage of crime is because they are the ones that most likely to reside in socially disorganized communities (Sampson and Wilson, 1995).
Sampson and Wilson (1995) explained how three macro factors impacts community level factors, which creates social disorganized neighborhoods. Deindustrialization of neighborhoods increases income inequality, which can lead to strain and criminal behavior by an individual. In addition, migration of mid...
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...hood. Neighborhoods with high collective efficacy care about the welfare of everyone in the community, not just of individuals from their household (Sampson et al., 1997)
As previously stated, it is difficult for a disorganized community to have high collective efficacy because of the four antecedent causes, especially poverty and transiency (Sampson et al., 1997). Sampson et al. (1997) discovered that collective efficacy was inversely related to delinquency, which means that neighborhoods with high collective efficacy experienced less deviant behavior. In addition, they found that concentrated disadvantage was related to violence in neighborhoods (Sampson et al., 1997). According to Sampson et al. (1997), 70 percent of the neighborhood variation in collective efficacy was explained by residential stability, immigration concentration, and concentrated disadvantage.
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