Introduction (300 words)
Every year the British Crime Survey estimates there are 260,000 incidents of hate crime (Hall, 2013). The Crown Prosecution Service perceives hate crime as encompassing physical and verbal abuse including, physical assault, damage to property, offensive graffiti and arson, threat of attack, verbal insults and harassment (Newburn, 2013). Hate crime embodies any criminal offence that is motivated by hostility or prejudice based upon the victims: disability, race, religion or belief, sexual orientation or transgender identity (Newburn, 2013). It goes without saying that the crimes committed alone are punishable offences; however the ‘hate’ element is regarded to be identifiably different because the victim was selected because of some personal characteristic (Newburn, 2013). Wolfe and Copeland (1994: 201) develops this with the statement that hate crime is ‘violence directed towards groups of people who generally are not valued by the majority society, who suffer discrimination in other arenas, and who do not have full access to remedy social, political and economic injustice’. However, as Turpin-Petrosino (2002) reminds us, cultural differences, contrasting social norms, and varying political interests make it hard to globally define hate crime. Of the 260,000 incidents of hate crime, recorded over 2009-2011, 50,000 were linked to sexual orientation and 136,000 linked to the offenders attitude to the victims race according to the British Crime Survey (Hall, 2013). With reference to sexual orientation and ra...
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...ng society on a path progressing towards diversity acceptance. In comparison sexual orientation related hate crime is in its infancy stage in terms of research, public attitudes, and legislative changes. Since the first prosecution of a homophobic murder in the 2006 Jody Dowbrowski case, culturally we have begun to view such issues with greater importance. Commonly however, victims of both racist and homophobic hate crime must be understood as a compilation of the social and cultural context in which they have become targets. This demonstrates the acknowledgement of a holistic approach to the problem rather than simply relying on a retributive response through law and the criminal justice system. The gradual recognition of hate crime as a non-tolerable issue through mediums such as the media and legislation is setting the foundations for an all accepting future.
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- What is meant by the term “hate crime”. Discuss with reference to at least one type of hate crime, paying particular attention to the social and cultural context in which some identities become targets. Introduction (300 words) Every year the British Crime Survey estimates there are 260,000 incidents of hate crime (Hall, 2013). The Crown Prosecution Service perceives hate crime as encompassing physical and verbal abuse including, physical assault, damage to property, offensive graffiti and arson, threat of attack, verbal insults and harassment (Newburn, 2013).... [tags: Sociology, Identity, Hate crime, Abuse]
2627 words (7.5 pages)
- Introduction When the topic of hate and bias crime legislation is brought up two justifications commonly come to mind. In her article entitled “Why Liberals Should Hate ‘Hate Crime Legislation” author Heidi M. Hurd discusses the courts and states views that those who commit hate and bias crimes ought to be more severely punished. She takes into consideration both sides of the argument to determine the validity of each but ultimately ends the article in hopes to have persuaded the reader into understanding and agreeing with her view that laws concerning the punishment of hate and bias laws should not be codified.... [tags: Hate Crime Farce]
1649 words (4.7 pages)
- Imagine you are a family member of a man who was chained up to the back of a pickup truck and drug along a gravel road for two miles until he was dead. Then imagine how you would feel after you found out that this happened just because he was a black man. Things like this sicken me. I believe that the people that are responsible for these horrific crimes should be prosecuted to the full extent of the law. That is why I strongly support hate crime laws. Now, before I dive into this very controversial subject, I should probably define what hate crime laws are so you will have a better understanding of what I am talking about.... [tags: Hate Crime Essays]
1380 words (3.9 pages)
- Many of the crimes that are committed are not simply a robbery of wealth but are committed against someone or a group of individuals that are different from their attacker. They are not robbing them of their wealth but of their peace of mind. These types of acts are deemed as hate crimes. Hate crimes have plagued many minorities and religious groups for many decades and although they are not nationally noted often when they are given exposure it can rip a community apart or shake the community to their core exposing their values and view of humanity.... [tags: Crime, Police, Assault, Crimes]
1155 words (3.3 pages)
- The History Behind Hate Crime and the Existing Legislation Many political scientists and researchers to a number of policy arenas in the United States ranging from corporal punishment to the quality of urban life have applied Daniel Elazar’s concept of political cultures. For a vast majority of these policy programs, a considerable correlation has been found to exist between the region examined and its approach to a specific policy. Elazar focused on three primary political cultures: the Moralist political culture (MPC), the Individual political culture (IPC), and the Traditional political culture (TPC).... [tags: Hate Crime Violence Criminalization Essays]
4215 words (12 pages)
- The night was dark Donavan comes out of the bar running into the alley, and there are three people running after him. Donavan is on the ground crying, and the people are yelling “fag” and “queer” as they are kicking and beating Donavan. Law enforcement has report in 2011 over 1500 hate crimes, which was based on sexual orientation bias (The Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2014). Unfortunately, hate crimes are becoming more common occurrence in today day an age. It is vital to understand hate crimes are criminal acts carried out against someone because of his or her race, religion, sexual orientation (The Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2014).... [tags: Crime, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Assault]
1135 words (3.2 pages)
- The First Amendment is known as the most protected civil liberty that protects our right to freedom of speech. There has been much controversy regarding hate speech and laws that prohibit it. These problems have risen from generation to generation and have been protested whether freedom of speech is guaranteed. According to our text book, By the People, hate speech is defined as “hostile statements based on someone’s personal characteristics, such as race, ethnicity, religion, or sexual orientation.” Hate speech is a topic of issue for many people and their right’s, so the question is often proposed whether hate speech should be banned by government.... [tags: Ku Klux Klan, Hate crime, Hate speech]
905 words (2.6 pages)
- Hate Crime Violence motivated by a bias against victims’ characteristics which include race, religion, ethnic background, national origin, gender, or sexual orientation, represents a serious threat to all communities. Experts estimate that a bias-related crime is committed every 14 minutes. Criminal justice officials and state policy makers need to realize that it is key to make or adjust hate crime legislation. This has been a heated debate for centuries.... [tags: Violence Racism Hate Crimes Essays]
1499 words (4.3 pages)
- "Homosexuality is assuredly no advantage, but it is nothing to be ashamed of, no vice, no degradation, it cannot be classified as an illness". Many highly respectable individuals of ancient and modern times have been homosexuals, several of the greatest me among them (Plato, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, etc.). It is a great injustice to persecute homosexuality as a crime, and cruelty too."(Isay, 3) Long ago it was declared by the republic of this nation that all men are created equal. By this statement, our founding fathers agreed upon the fact that no matter your race, religion, sexual orientation, sex or disability, as a citizen of the United States of America one has the same rights... [tags: Gay Hate Crime]
919 words (2.6 pages)
- On October tenth of 2004, eleven Christians were arrested for street witnessing on a public sidewalk during a “gay pride” event. Charges were dropped against six of them, but four adults and one juvenile faced serious charges under Philadelphia's hate crime laws. These five people were charged with criminal conspiracy, “ethnic intimidation”, reckless endangerment, and inciting a riot. Each person, if convicted, faced 47 years in prison and a $90,000 fine. The state of Pennsylvania recently added “ethnic intimidation” to its hate crime law on December 5, 2002.... [tags: essays research papers]
387 words (1.1 pages)