Course of Action (COA) by Government Branches: Brief Overview of COAs

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Muddling through can be scientifically linked based on the methods associated with testing hypothesis for courses of action (COA) (Lindblom, 1959). The root method of problem solving relies on facts overshadowing constraints to deliver an expected outcome (Greiff, 2013). The linear evaluation of alternatives are associated with the optimal known is sought through discovery and analysis. A degree of risk is associated with unknowns that can detract or change an outcome that is simply fluke or out of one’s control (Fitzsimmons, 2011). Policy building in designed by the branches created with the COAs that can be agreed upon through familiarity of past or related policy (Lowenthal, 2011). The caveat and build of branches is beneficial to the policy maker because each cramp in the branch has a measurable outcome of compromise through the association of benefit(s). For example a policy that allows parents to emancipate their kids at the age of 18 would consist of branches with the parameter such as if the child has an existing trust as a result of divorce or the adult can be taxed a portion of the trust if more that X amount is used within the fiscal year of release. The branches can act as bargaining chip to compromise (Lindblom, 1959). The trial and error of implementation gives a quick glance of how productive the policy is overall in specific case and circumstances (Lindblom, 1959). The scientific measure of a hypothesis substantiates or discredits theory (Miller, 2011). Policy is not based on theory as much as it is action (Page, 2010). The Selma Bus Boycotts generated policy that would hopefully end the boycotts. The negotiation process was not successful the eventually the compromise through branches of the policy of... ... middle of paper ... ...nce is the power support needs to manage probable outcomes. Works Cited Fitzsimmons, J. R. (2011). Interaction between feasibility and desirability in the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(4). Greiff, S. W. (2013). Complex problem solving in educational contexts—Something beyond Concept, assessment, measurement invariance, and construct validity . Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(2), . Lindblom, C. (1959). The Science of "Muddling Through". Public Administration Review (19), 79-88. Lowenthal, M. M. (2011). Intelligence: From secrets to policy. . CQ press. Miller, K. D. (2011). Testing management theories: critical realist philosophy and research methods. Strategic Management Journal, 32(2). Page, B. I. (2010). The rational public: Fifty years of trends in Americans' policy preferences. University of Chicago Press.

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