Corruption in Somalia is the prime impediment to the effective distribution of aid, and in turn, subverts efforts by the United Nations to reduce poverty and improve security, as well as efforts by the USAID program to promote democracy. International organizations, Non-Governmental organizations et al, have made it part of their mission to aid developing countries. Aid in various forms such as development, health and food assistance, and education have had exponentially positive effects throughout the world. However, in conflict ridden countries such as Somalia, with high levels of corruption, aid in every form has been virtually ineffective. It is vital to comprehend the extent to which corruption dilutes aid efforts, in order to evaluate future policy. This analysis attempts to determine the extent to which corruption renders aid ineffective, by analyzing Somalia, which received an estimated total of US$985 million in 2011 alone, yet remains at the bottom of every index in the international community.
Historical Context: Origins of Conflict
Somalia gained Independence in 1960, “by the Union of the former British and Italian Somalilands.” Albeit, the first decade of Somalia’s existence appeared promising, “little civil governance or service delivery existed… it was against this background that the successful coup, which brought Siad Barre to power in 1969, took place.” Barre renamed Somalia the Somali Democratic Republic, and during his twenty year socialist military dictatorship, several events such as the Ogaden war, caused opposition groups to arise. Bernard Kengni explained how the government response to opposition groups, ultimately lead to civil war in 1991:
Then-president Siad Barre began using his...
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. Unknown, “Somalia: reported US covert actions 2001-2013,” The Bureau of Investigative Journalism, February 22, 2013.
. UN Department of Public Information, News and Media Division, New York, “Deputy Secretary-General,” United Nations, http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2013/dsgsm719.doc.htm (accessed December 5, 2013).
.UNICEF Somalia, “Go-2-School Initiative (2013-2016) Educating for Resilience,” http://www.unicef.org/somalia/SOM_resources_gotoschool.pdf (accessed December 5, 2013).
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. Global Humanitarian Assistance, “Somalia,” Global Humanitarian Assistance.org, http://www.globalhumanitarianassistance.org/countryprofile/somalia
. Transparency. “Corruption Perceptions Index: Corruption around the World in 2013”
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