The Pearson product moment correlation is the most frequently utilized measure of relationships (Salkind, 2012). The symbol for this relationship is the letter r which represents the variables being correlated. Furthermore, the symbol rxy characterizes a correlation between two variables, X and Y. When computing a correlation, one requires a pair of scores, for example, reading scores and math scores for each group the researcher is working with. In the case of computing the correlation between the hours a group studies and test scores, one should measure the number of hours spent and the results of test for each individual. A good way to represent the findings is the use of scattergram, also known as scatter plot. Scattergrams provide a visual depiction of the correlation coefficient of the relationship between two variables, X and Y. They are very beneficial for researchers to determine correlation coefficients. Essentially, a correlation is a measure of how two different variables relate to one another, how they co-relate. A scattergram shows that co-relation on a diagram.
The scattergram is like a graph or a bar chart, having a x and y at right angles to one another. In this case, the x axis represents one variable, while the y axis represents the second variable. The points on the scattergram are obtained by taking related measurements of the two variables. They might be related by being taken at the same time, or by coming from the same research participant, or in some other way; but they always represent a pair of scores. Each of these paired measurements is plotted on the scattergram, using a cross or an asterisk. It is not necessary to join up the points with lines, because t...
... middle of paper ...
... such a way that it would form the long axis of an oval which encompasses most of the scores. The closer a correlation is to being perfect, the more closely the more closely the scores will seem to be clustered around the line of best fit.
Finally, patterns displayed in scattergrams that have stronger formations and the more a pattern aligns itself to a 45 degree angle, either from the lower left corner of the graph to the upper right corner for positive correlations, or from the upper left corner of the graph to the lower right corner for negative correlation, the stronger the visual evidence of the existence of a relationship between two variables. Scattergrams are exceptionally useful for providing a quick, visual summary of the strength of a correlation. However, they serve as an accompaniment to more complex statistics, not as an end in themselves.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Measures The measurement instrument to be used in this research study is a questionnaire that will collect socio-demographics, and examine attitudes and trends related to the constructs social support and stress levels in multicultural organizations. With the help of previous literature, a questionnaire was created which utilized concepts from the JDCS model. In order to ensure face validity, these items will be chosen from pre-existing instruments (Comins, Krogsgaard, & Brodersen, 2013). After analyzing previous literature that measured organizational support and stress, 8 indicators were selected to measure job demand, control and support in multicultural organizations.... [tags: Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient]
1181 words (3.4 pages)
- The brief quiz in your first assignment aims to help you build some good habits in your data analysis process. Let 's take a look at what they are: Q1: Specify whether the study you aim to examine is an independent event or not. That is, whether the result of Event B is an consequence of Event A. The results of your judgment or assumption would directly affect on what test you want to use in your study. For example, in a study of the relationship between property damage and willingness to participate in community recovery project post-Hurricane Ike, you can split the residents into four groups--damaged and participated, damaged but not participated, not damaged but participated, and neither... [tags: Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient]
937 words (2.7 pages)
- The purpose of the current experiment is to determine whether leadership styles can create a creative workforce to mitigate an absence of monetary rewards. My study will examine the connections between retention rates in the absence of monetary rewards. The results can then be analyzed to determine if leadership styles can mitigate the effects of low salaries. The results of the study will be measured using quantitative data. Since leadership styles may differ from various organizations, it is important to conduct this study only using quantitative data.... [tags: Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient]
851 words (2.4 pages)
- Today, many individuals within business use statistics in order to come up with conclusions on whether or not variables have correlation or causation. These statistics help people and businesses back up their claims with data. However, there are so many errors and biased opinions that get tied together to create a fallacy around their claims. It is important to understand the variables within studies to see how their relationship could be affected by other variables that aren’t mentioned. The article “The Link Between Sleep and Weight” discusses the correlation between not getting enough sleep and weight gain.... [tags: businesses, laims, data, statistics]
1754 words (5 pages)
- Are the measures of the variables valid and reliable. Setting aside that the wrong method was selected by Illingworth and Timmons, an evaluation of the survey questions reveals additional weakness in the study. The question: “On average how often does a patient come from the theatre into the recovery room wearing Flowtron boots?” demonstrates ambiguity and subjectivity (See Appendix). Whatever the respondent selects, it is irrelevant as the question itself introduces variability by adding the On average statement at the beginning of the question.... [tags: Statistics, Arithmetic mean, Psychometrics]
1145 words (3.3 pages)
- The descriptive statistics generated for the first research objective (RO1) consist of gender, age, race, and education. Frequency distribution tables were generated to compute the total sample size (N), the mean (M), median (Mdn), mode, and standard deviation (SD) for the gender, race, and education variables. A descriptive statistics table was generated to describe the total sample size, the minimum and maximum responses, mean, and standard deviation for the age variable, which is a scale variable.... [tags: Statistics, Statistical hypothesis testing]
770 words (2.2 pages)
- Correlation between Proportion of Bus Stops and Robberies 4.3.1 Model 1 Robberies happened in entire day in 2010 Table 4.3 Model 1 Robberies happened in entire day in 2010 Dependent Variable: 2010_Robbery_Pct Beta Sig. VIF 10_BS_Pct 0.597 0.000 1.258 10_Pop_SQMI 0.295 0.005 1.198 10_Un25_Pct 0.140 0.228 1.560 10_Vacancy_Pct 0.238 0.030 1.343 10_Med_HH -0.039 0.753 1.786 R Square: 0.632 Adj. R Square: 0.591 The statistically significant facts can be witnessed from table 4.3. Diagnostics, more specifically, the variance inflation factor (VIF), which quantifies how much of a coefficient’s variance increases as a result of multicollinearity, is computed for all of the independen... [tags: Bus, Public transport, Bus rapid transit]
2241 words (6.4 pages)
- Correlation Between Masculinity and Empathy Many psychological studies have been carried out over the years in the topic of personality, in aiming to grasp the type of factors that are involved in bestowing us the personalities that we hold. Most people will have probably come across various personality tests at some stage or another, which ask you lots of questions and then analyze your results in trying to categorize what kind of personality you've got. One of the most fascinating aspects of personality is the issue of gender roles in our personalities.... [tags: Papers]
1687 words (4.8 pages)
- The following studies have compared PM2.5 to meteorological variables, identified a relationship between PM2.5 and aerosol optical depth, looked at PM2.5 source apportionment, and used the multiple linear regression to predict PM concentration respectively. CORRELATING PM2.5 AND METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES In 2010, Tai et al. applied a multiple linear regression model to study the correlation of PM2.5 and its components with meteorological variables from 1998-2008 across the contiguous United States (US).... [tags: Regression analysis, Linear regression]
1318 words (3.8 pages)
- Investigation to Find Correlation Between Given Data Title: The purpose of this investigation is to find if there is any correlation between two variables extracted from 5% random sampling of the Mayfield Data provided. Introduction: In this GCSE coursework, I will be trying to prove three hypotheses, by using statistical techniques we have learned throughout the GCSE course. My line of enquiry will be based on the relationship between a pupil's IQ and various Key Stage 2 results.... [tags: Papers]
1944 words (5.6 pages)