Researching the correlation amongst brain anatomy and physiology is a primary pursuit in neuroscience. Simplistic in its composition the brain is astoundingly the most complicated machine known to man. This mass of protein and fat in addition to being responsible for maintaining homeostasis also encompasses attributes that not only make us unique, creative, empathetic, moreover human.
Overview of structure & function
The brain of humans is primarily composed of two general classes of cells; neurons and glial cells. Glial cells have a wide range of varieties, and implement numerous roles, including development, metabolic support, insulation, and structural support. Neurons, about 100 billion in number, is are electrically excitable cells that route and process information through electrical and chemical signals. The most common neurons are structurally designed to consist of a soma (cell body), dendrites that branched tree like projections from a soma, and axon which is the slender projection connected to the soma.
The superior most region of the brain is called the cerebrum. The cerebrum is not only the largest structure in the brain but it also includes the most commonly recognized characteristic of the brain; sulci and gyri of the cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex is divided into two cortices along a mid-sagittal plane called the medial longitudinal fissure. This fissure separates the brain into the left and right hemispheres. Subcortical architecture of the cerebrum consist of the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb. The hippocampus, which is named after its resemblance to a sea horse, is a part of the limbic system. With two interconnected parts (Ammon’s horn & dentate gyrus), the hippocampus ...
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...ve issues, growth and development. For example, lactation post birth for a mother is regulated by the hypothalamus.
The final structure in this review is the most primitive or primal of all brain structures. Responsible for most functions of homeostasis in humans. The brainstem is found at the base of the brain, continuous with the spinal cord. The brain stem is divided into three separate regions consisting of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla. The midbrain is associated with motor control, alertness, vision, hearing, and sleep/wake cycle and the regulation of temperature. The pons is the pneumotaxic center of the brain regulating portions of inhalation and exhalation. The medulla is responsible for autonomic actions spanning from sneezing to vomiting. The medulla includes centers for respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and vomiting functions.
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