The activities of the OSCE and the Council of Europe in Macedonia 5
Cooperation of the OSCE and the Council of Europe in Macedonia 7
With the current conflict in Ukraine, the attention for international organizations working in the field of (post-)conflict states is growing. In Europe, many international organizations are working in post-conflict areas. Apart from the well known organizations such as the EU and NATO, two other actors play an important role: the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the Council of Europe. The OSCE was founded in 1975 by signing the Helsinki Final Act. This document included commitments on environmental, political, military, human rights and economic issues. The name of the organization was then the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE). In 1990, after the Cold War the, until then loose, organization was changed by establishing permanent institutions and the name was changed into the OSCE. The Council of Europe was established in the aftermath of the Second World War in 1949. At its foundation it had only 16 members. After the Cold War its memberships increased to 47 by 2010. The Council of Europe’s main issue is the protection of human rights. These two organizations have a lot in common. The most important similarities are the policy fields in which the organizations act. The OSCE and the Council of Europe are both active in the protection of human rights, democratization, good governance, conflict prevention, gender equality, the protection of minority rights, education, rule of law, non-discrimination, human trafficking,...
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... prevention in Macedonia. London: Institute for Public Policy Research, 2009.
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (website). http://www.assembly.coe.int/nw/Home-EN.asp.
Parliamentary Assembly of the OSCE (Website). http://www.oscepa.org/.
The Ohrid Framework Agreement. http://www.ucd.ie/ibis/filestore/Ohrid%20Framework%20Agreement.pdf.
Rittberger, Volker, Bernhard Zangl and Andreas Kruck. International Organization. 2rd ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.
Skåre, Siri and Kåre Vollan. ‘’Election Observation Handbook.’’ In Manual on Human Rights Monitoring; An Introduction for Human Rights Field Officers. 3rd ed. Norwegian Centre for Human Rights, University of Oslo, 2008.
Ulfstein, Juris Geir. The Council of Europe and the OSCE: Enhancing co-operation and complementarity through greater coherence. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 2012.
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