Control theory was developed by Hirschi after examination of Merton’s Strain Theory and Durkheim 's Anomie Theory. It explains conformity through social bonds, which are attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief ( Zembroski, 2011). Attachment relates to family, schools, and peers. In poor disadvantaged neighborhoods, some parents have to deal with a lot of stress factors that causes their parenting to be very low in warmth. This causes the bond between parents to diminish, therefore their discipline and values are poor (Hoffmann, 2002). Same goes with schools and peers. In a poor neighborhood there is not enough financial support to have adequate schools, teachers, and activities. When school is inadequate then delinquency is formed, such that poor academic performance begins as a chain of disrespect for the school, teachers, staff and, later, authority as a whole (Hoffmann, 2002; Zembroski, 2011). Peers sometimes tend to be involved in delinquent behavior, causing young adults to be pressured into a life of crime (Church II, Jaggers, & Taylor, 2011). The second bond is commitment and it relates to the degree to which the individual’s self-interest in a set of activities connects the individual to society’s morals (Zembroski, 2011). This basically means that the individual needs to have self worth and aspirations. Unfortunately in low income neighborhoods, these feelings are extremely low for some. They grew up with generations of family living in that neighborhood and with the idea that they will forever be stuck there. They see it within their neighbors and friends, that the only way to survive is to commit crime. They see nothing else bigger than the streets they live on, so they continue the path they beli...
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...Youths turn to crime to achieve these goals because there lacks access to both learning and performance structures in the community, therefore, there is no social structure that underwrites career delinquency and criminal subcultures (Becker, 2013). In lower class neighborhoods, there a little to no institutional resources to shape moral character or collective efficacy to supervise the youth. They do not have enough money for neighborhood watch programs, civilian patrols, block groups, public safety committees, or police partnership (Becker, 2013). This leads to dense crime problems because the children only learn their moral character and values from what they see on the street. And since there is no surveillance or protection in these neighborhoods, the things they see on the streets is crime and they see that it is the only way to achieve their cultural goals.
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- Several criminological theorists contend that social development can lead to an increase in the propensity for criminality. While there are various social and environmental factors that can be attributed to this association, the following provides discussion on the role of social bonds. Understanding the role of social bonds will provide further insight on how they impact the process of developing an increased propensity for criminality. In 1969, Travis Hirschi introduced social bond theory as a means to explain the importance of one’s social bonds in strengthening conformity (Lilly, Cullen, & Ball, 2015).... [tags: Sociology, Social control theory]
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