For idealists, a school’s primary focus is to refine the student’s intellectual process, as well implement exemplary models of behavior. Teachers would not only model ideal behaviors, but have full authoritative control over the classroom and the orderly process of educating students to strive for goodness. (“Five Educational Philosophies,” n.d.) Essentialists schooling is practical, with the focus on creating productive members of society, through basic curriculum of reading, writing, and arithmetic. Students are required to work hard, be respectful, and be disciplined, while teachers control classrooms through an authoritative approach (“Five Educational Philosophies,” n.d.). Perennialists goal is to make sure students gain their knowledge from the “great works” of Western civilization, that have stood the test of time. Teachers teach students their interpretation and “through highly disciplined drill and behavior control” (“Five Educational Philosophies, n.d.). Progressivists and Experimentalists believe education must be centered on the child. They teach students that the world is an ever-changing place and provide students opportunities for hand-on experiences and problem-solving activities. Students are expected to be actively engaged and involved in their education, with teachers being used as guides, to assist students in discovering the world and their knowledge development (“Five Educational Philosophies,” n.d.)
Major Influences on Educational Philosophies
There have been numerous philosophies of education over the past two hundred years. However the five major philosophies that have had the most influence on the American Educational System are: 1) I...
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Through the history of American education there have been numerous philosophies influencing the curriculum of schools. Great debates have occurred and are still being contemplated over what the purpose of education is, what does it mean to truly know something, what information is necessary and worth knowing, and how it should all be evaluated. As curriculum has moved from an eara of study in curriculum development from 1918-1979, to shifting instead to understanding of curriculum in the 1980’s, back to more of a focus on curriculum development again, with educational reforms like No Child Left Behind and Common Core, the definition of curriculum will always be a topic of debate. Educational philosophies will continue to influence American schools and teachers, deciding if classroom instruction student-centered of teacher-centered.
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