After the defeat of the famous French leader Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815, the European great powers had to shift their focus on the Ottoman Empire with their goal of maintaining the status quo in Europe. All the great powers were aware of Tsar Alexander I of Russia’s expansionist visions and because of the role the Russian’s played in defeating Napoleon he felt he deserved to expand . The steady decline of the Ottoman Empire and the fact that it was not included as one of the Great Powers at the Congress of Vienna made it the most prominent source of conflict among the European great powers between 1815-1914.
Being left out of the Congress of Vienna and Quadruple Alliance in 1815 made it clear that the Ottoman Empire was on the decline and therefore left a big question among the great powers; what to do about the Ottoman Empire? This question became known as the Eastern Question and would result in deadly conflicts among great powers, redrawing of the map, and revolutions among autonomous states across Europe. The Russo-Turkish struggle in the Balkans formed the central aspect of the Eastern Question, which in the beginning of the 19th century, had become the most important question in European international relations . The downfall of the Ottoman Empire started long before 1815 when two successful wars conducted by Catherine the Great(r. 1762-1796) against the Ottoman Empire in 1768 and later in 1787. These conflicts permanently altered the balance of power in the east. As the Ottoman power began to decline, subsequently, Russian power rose. This rise in Russia...
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Anderson, M.S. THE EASTERN QUESTION 1774-1923. New York City, NY: St. Martin's Press INC, 1966.
Bitis, Alexander. RUSSIA AND THE EASTERN QUESTION Army, Government, and Society 1815-1833. New York City, NY: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2006.
Cunningham, Allan. Eastern Questions in the Nineteenth Century. Portland Oregon: International Specialized Book Services, Inc., 1993.
Figes, Orlando. 2010. The Crimean War : a History. 1st ed. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Macfie, A.L. The Eastern Question 1774-1923. New York City, NY: Addison Wesley Longman Inc, 1996.
Morgan, Michael. International Relations, 1815-1945. Chapel Hill, NC: UNC Student Stores Course Pack Publishing, 2014.
Royle, Trevor. Crimea : the Great Crimean War, 1854-1856. First St. Martin’s ed. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000.
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