"Security, in any objective sense, measures the absence of threat to acquired values, in a wiki sense, the absence of fear that such values will be attacked" (Buzan, 1991:4).
Then from the definitions that have been mentioned by the penstudi HI can be seen that the security threat is the lack of values needed to live a human life.
While the concept of a threat to its own security Ullman defined as:
"An action or sequence of events that (1) Threatens drastically and over A relatively brief span of time to degrade the quality of life for the inhabitants of a state or (2) Threatens Significantly to narrow the range of policy choices available to government of a state, or to private, nongovernmental entities (persons, groups, corporations) within the state "(Ullman, 1983:133).
Meanwhile, according to Simon Dalby, the security dimension in the study of International Relations has experienced a shift from the traditional perspective that is limited to war and peace. Towarda non-traditional perspective that emphasizes human security and contains more aspects. Security is no longer focused on interstate relations, but also on the security of society (Dalby, 2003:102-103).
Peter Hough said that the definition of security is still a 'contested concept', or a concept that will continue to grow (Hough, 2004:15). However Viotti and Kauppi has defined the defense and security as the basis of a country's protection, and safety concept applies to individuals as well as groups (Viotti and Kauppi, 1999:56). While Indonesian dictionary defines security as a situation that is protected from hazards (safety objective), f...
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- Roe, Paul(2007), ‘Societal Security’, in Alan, Collins., Contemporary Security Studies (Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Kedourie, Elie(1960), Nationalism, London: Hutchinson of London.
- Kaldor, Mary(1999), New and Old Wars, Organized Violence in a Global era, Oxford: Polity Press.
- Waever, Ole; Buzan, Barry; Kelstrup, Morten(1993), Lemaitre, Pierre., Identity, Migration and the New Security Agenda in Europe, London: Pinter Publishers Ltd.
- Aslan, S (2007), ‘Citizen, Speak Turkish!: A Nation in the Making’ Nationalism and Ethnic Politics.13/2.
- Engelhardt, J(2007), ‘Patriotism, mationalism and modernity’ Nations and Nationalism. 13/2.
- Jervis, R(1978), ‘Cooperation under the Security Dilemma’, World Politics 30.
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