To begin with, North and South America, which had existed in isolation for thousands of years, came into contact with the rest of the world via the Italian explorer, Christopher Columbus. In 1492, he was sent by Spain to look for a route to India. Rather, Columbus came into contact with a Caribbean island. This marked the beginning of Spanish invasion of the Americas, who were in search of gold. Perhaps the most profound Spanish conquistadors were Hernan Cortez and Francisco Pizzaro, who managed to destroy the Aztec and Inca civilization of modern-day Mexico and Peru. Even though they had small forces, the Spanish were able to defeat these large cultures rapidly. With horses and gunpowder weapons, conquistadors enjoyed military advantage by using divide and conquer tactics. This means that they persuaded native tribes to rebel and then allied with them to overthrow the ruler.
For example, the largest city in the world in 1519 was the Aztec city of Tenochitlan. With a population of 250,000 people, it was organized with market trade and religious duties. Numerous temples were built that were devoted to their Gods and nature, particularly the sun which created food. It was believed that the sun obtained its energy from human blood, so there were frequent sacrifices of all types of people. Over 20,000 people each year. They had conquered much of the neighboring Tlaxcala’s territory, and used them for sacrifice. As a result, they made an alliance with Hernan Cortes, so he gained...
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... by traveler, Zhenghe. He went to Southeast Asia, India, the Middle East, and East Africa. 50 million trees were used to build massive boats known as junk ships were used to go there. This expanded Chinese trade, knowledge about the outside world, and, forced fifty states to pay tribute. However, after the death of the ruler, they became distracted with land based threats of nomads and ceases exploration and naval expansion. Confucianism scholars advised no to have outside influences, but a pure culture. As a result, they lost opportunities to reach the New World before Spain and Portugal. It is agreed in this situation that the advancements were put to waste, although the Chinese managed to share their influence with Vietnam, Singapore, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Korea, and Thailand. However, in most cases a civilization’s advancements lead to success.
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