Carbon is one of the 115 chemical elements discovered on Earth which is part of the nonmetals group with other elements such as nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen. Carbon as an element has good stability, it is very light, very stable, and has many types of forms such as graphite, and coal. Carbon fiber is just another form of carbon, basically has filaments between five to ten micrometers in diameter of pure carbon or at least 90% of carbon. Thousand carbon fibers are twisted together to form a long chain, which can then be used in a variety of raw forms, including yarns, weaves, and braids, which are in turn mixed with synthetic resins to create the carbon fiber as a composite material. Based on different characteristics carbon fibers can be divided into three principals groups: according to carbon fiber tensile modulus, according to precursor fiber materials, and according to final heat treatment temperature.
Carbon fibers, compared with other materials have extraordinary mechanical and chemical properties such as high tensile strength, good thermal and electrical conductivities, low specific gravity, chemical stabilities in the absence of oxidizing agents, and high value of Young’s modulus, that make them excellent engineering materials for different industrial applications. This properties of carbon fiber such as high tensile strength, low weight, and low thermal expansion make it very interesting and popular in aerospace, civil engineering, military, and automotive industry. However, it is relatively expensive compared to other materials such as steel, aluminum, fiberglass or plastic.
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is a white th...
... middle of paper ...
...reatment is called graphitization and it involves the transformation of carbon structure into a three dimensional graphite structure. Prior to graphitization carbon fibers might consist of 90% carbon by mass and usually have small impurities such as hydrogen, during graphitization these impurities are removed. In other words, graphitization process is a carbonization process at high heating temperature. At this point, up to 99% of PAN polymer was converted to carbon structure.
Carbonized fiber must undergo graphitization process to have a substantial improvements on the fiber´s performance. Based on the final heat treatment, Carbon fiber which are produced in this condition can be classified with the name of Type-I, high-heat-treatment carbon fibers (HTT), where final heat treatment temperature should be above 1900°C and can be associated with high-modulus type fiber
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- The discovery and widespread usage of composite materials has opened new doors in the manufacturing industry. Composites are materials composed of two or more different materials. The new material has distinct and superior structural properties than the individual component materials. The most ancient composite is adobe, which consists of straw reinforced clay and was commonly used as a building material . Modern composites consist of a woven fiber, which reinforces a plastic polymer shell. Two major examples of modern composites are fiberglass and carbon fiber.... [tags: Carbon fiber, Composite material, Boeing 787]
1602 words (4.6 pages)
- Introduction: Carbon fibers were invented in the late 1800’s by Thomas Edison for use as filaments in the first lightbulbs. They were originally composed of cellulose based materials like cotton, which underwent pyrolysis: the process of being carbonised by baking at high temperatures. These early carbon fibres were used predominantly for their resistance to changes in temperature and also their ability to conduct, however lacked the high tensile strength of modern fibres. Nowadays these are created from petroleum based substances.... [tags: modern fibres, lighbulbs]
1094 words (3.1 pages)
- Related to trial number 1 to 15 in table 1, the surface quality of GFRP laminates in machined slot wall surface by solid carbide end mill was revealed in table 3, figure 2(a), (b) (c), and SEM graphs 3(a) and 3(b) from the results and micrographic area of cutting slot it can seen that firstly, when the spindle speed is increases from 690 RPM to 1153 RPM and feed rate from 1mm/Sec to 2mm/Sec, the influenced resultant cutting force is reduced significantly, the surface roughness and delamination factor is considerably reduced, means best surface quality without cracks beneath the top layer surface.... [tags: Milling cutter, Cutting fluid, Composite material]
761 words (2.2 pages)
- The successful use of wood-based particles and fibers as fillers or reinforcements in thermoplastic composites requires an essential considerate of the structural and chemical personalities of wood . English and Falk give an inclusive overview of the factors that influence the properties of wood–plastic composites . While several studies have revealed that fiber-polymer compatibility can be improved by selecting appropriate coupling agents [3,4], compatibility between polar wood fiber and non-polar thermoplastics remains key to extend the function limits of the resulting composites .... [tags: architecture, woodworking]
684 words (2 pages)
- Abstract Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced alumina-silica fibers were prepared by an in-situ sol-gel method. Aluminum isopropoxide (AIP), aluminum nitrite (AN) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) were used as starting materials to prepare spinnable aluminosilicate sol in aqueous media. The mechanical properties and the structures of the MWCNTs reinforced alumina-silica fibers were studied. The results reveal that homogeneous distribution of MWCNTs in alumina-silica fibers improved the mechanical properties of alumina-silica fibers considerably, only 0.5 wt% acid-treated MWCNTs addition in alumina-silica fiber results in 60% increases in tensile strength (397.6±44.7 MPa).... [tags: Research Analysis]
1596 words (4.6 pages)
- A milestone of fatigue behaviour in composite materials is due thanks to Kenneth Reifsnider  whom also deeply studied damage development . The phenomenon cannot be described easily as in metals because of the complexity of the internal microstructure. The most important consequence of this complexity lies in the loss of a well-defined damage state, which cannot be considered like a single crack in homogeneous materials. Reifsnider in his introduction highlights the difficulty to define the damage condition in composite.... [tags: Kenneth-Reifsnider, science of materials]
1541 words (4.4 pages)
- Synthetic and natural fibers are the most essential part in clothes manufacturing. They make up the clothing we wear everyday. Fibers are made up of polymers, which are an arrangement of large molecules that are then made up of groups of even smaller molecules that are linked together to form a large chain structure. The smaller molecules are called monomers, and when they join together larger molecules are produced, making macromolecules (Bailey). Synthetic fibers are made up of polymers giving them more unique abilities while still being an affordable alternative to natural fabrics.... [tags: clothes, fibers, polymers, nylon]
846 words (2.4 pages)
- Numerical Study of Tensile Properties of POM/ Woven Kenaf Composite. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Study The geometry of woven fiber reinforced polymer like Polyoxymethylene (POM) and Woven Kenaf composite is quite complex. Therefore, to predict tensile properties of such composite requires numerical method. This project focuses on the use of The Laminator software and understanding the theories on Maximum Stress, Maximum Strain, Tsai-Hill, Hoffman, and Tsai-Wu failure to produces the required results.... [tags: woven fiber composite, geometry, ]
1555 words (4.4 pages)
- The word composite comes from the latin “composititus” meaning made up of distinct parts. A composite material is a material composed of two or more distinct materials, or constituents, with one constituent acting as the reinforcing phase and the other as the matrix. A composite material is defined by having different macroscopic behaviours, or chemical and physical properties then its constituent materials, and has a distinct interface boundary on the microscopic level. Structure of Composites In a composite material the constituents are arranged generally with the reinforcement phase embedded in the matrix phase.... [tags: Sturctures, Types, Mechanical Properties]
874 words (2.5 pages)
- In a composite material the constituents are arranged generally with the reinforcement phase embedded in the matrix phase. Due to a composite being essentially a mixture between the reinforcement phase and the matrix there is no intermolecular bonding between the two, however, as in the case of fibrous composites, the most mechanically efficient structure is a criss-crossed fibrous lattice suspended in a material matrix. In the case of particulate composites however, the reinforcement phase acts essentially to strengthen the matrix material adding support.... [tags: Scientific Research ]
996 words (2.8 pages)