Essay on Compare venom and venom gland sequences for VEGF-F

Essay on Compare venom and venom gland sequences for VEGF-F

Length: 2460 words (7 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Term Papers

Open Document

Essay Preview

Abstract: Snake bite is a major health problem in developing countries. And the recent treatments have many limitations such as: efficiency, side effect and expenses. Designing new antivenom is base on generating a DNA plasmid containing the most immunogenic motifs of the venom toxins in order to generate antibodies to this plasmid; next it is injected to a camel, then the extracted antibodies used as antivenom. The aim of this study to compare between the venom gland and the gland transcriptomes, hoping that using the venom as a source of mRNA will avoid sacrificing the snake. In this study a compare between the vascular endothelial growth factor transcriptomes in venom and venom gland by obtain cDNA from the cDNA library then the cDNA in amplified by PCR followed by cloning it in TOPO plasmid in E.coli. Then the cloning product is sequenced and an alignment is made between the venom VEGF and venom gland VEGF and also other VEGF-F from different sources. Finally get the sequence bioinformatics. The result shows a 100%indindity between the venom and venom gland VEGF and the previously sequenced Bitis arietans VEGF. Which suggest that venom is an excellent source for the VEGF mRNA. But a further investigation should be done on the role of the VEGF in the envenoming process before including the VEGF motif the rationale therapy DNA plasmid.

. Introduction:

Snakes have from ancient time related to sciences associated with poison and death, such as toxicology plus as a symbol of medicine (Ramoutsaki 2000). Today 421, 000 people are affected by snake bite with greater than 20,000 deaths annually (Kasturiratne A 2008)

The snake venom effect human by six board categories (I)flaccid effect (II) systemic myolysis(iii) co...

... middle of paper ... gland transcriptomes in reptile venoms." Analytical Biochemistry, 2002.
white, julian. "snake venom and coagulopathy." toxicon, 2005.
Yasuo Yamazaki, Yukiko Matsunaga, Yuko Tokunaga, Shinya Obayashi, Mai Saito, and Takashi Morita. "Snake Venom Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors (VEGF-Fs) Exclusively Vary Their Structures and Functions among Species." THE JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY, 2009: 9885-9892.
Yasuo Yamazaki, Yuko Tokunaga, Koji Takani, and Takashi Morita. "Identification of the Heparin-Binding Region of Snake Venom Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF-F) and Its Blocking of VEGF-A165†." Biochemistry, 2005.
Yuko Tokunaga, Yasuo Yamazaki, Takashi Morita. "SpeciWc distribution of VEGF-F in Viperinae snake venoms: Isolation and characterization of a VEGF-F from the venom of Daboia russelli siamensis." Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 2005.

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Essay on The Suprarenal Gland

- The suprarenal gland (adrenal gland) is located at the top of each kidney; therefore each person has two adrenal glands. Adrenal glands appear to look like triangular shaped objects on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands are dire in creating different hormones that are necessary for a fully functional body. With each adrenal gland, they are both made up of two different sections. The first section being the adrenal cortex, and that is located on the outer region of the adrenal gland; the second section called the adrenal medulla, and that is located in the inner region of the adrenal gland....   [tags: adrenal cortex, adrenal gland, cortisol]

Term Papers
1000 words (2.9 pages)

Anterior Pituitary Gland, Pituitary Hormones And How They Affect Target Tissues

- ... In adults, GH deficiency presents with weakened musculature, pathological fractures, low energy and libido. Hormone replacement therapy is recommended for low levels of GH. Excess levels of growth hormone before the fusion of the epiphyseal plates cause gigantism while excess GH in adulthood cause acromegaly (Skugor & Hamrahian, 2012). In recent years, GH doping has become a problem in professional sports and body building. Because GH promotes protein production, many athletes use injections of growth hormone to stimulate muscle building and they ignore the harmful side effects....   [tags: Hypothalamus, Growth hormone, Pituitary gland]

Term Papers
1225 words (3.5 pages)

Revealing Venom Complexity through Mass Spectrometry Essay

- Introduction Venoms from animals have been known to be rich sources of bioactive molecules. They are highly specific and potent to certain ion channels, membranes and receptors, creating a huge potential in field of drug discovery (Escoubas et al. 2008; Bailey & Wilce 2001, Prashanth et al. 2012). Analytical tools have been crucial in uncovering the peptide libraries they contain (Escoubas et al. 2008, Prashanth et al. 2012) Venoms are highly complex, indicating the large amount of molecular species or components even from a single individual....   [tags: biochemistry, venoms from animals]

Term Papers
943 words (2.7 pages)

Essay on The Risk and Luck of Beekeeping Demonstrated in the Poem, Venom

- Beekeeping is a dangerous and risky activity if the right precautions are not taken. Tanis MacDonald demonstrates the risk and luck involved in a beekeeping career in her poem “Venom”. She illustrates a young girl’s experiences through the poem, and the irony of the career the beekeeper chose later. Imagery is used continuously throughout the poem to entice the reader so they might have a better connection with the poem. Furthermore MacDonald incorporates symbolism in the poem to enhance its meaning....   [tags: Tanis MacDonald, poem analysis, Poetry]

Term Papers
872 words (2.5 pages)

Essay on Neurotoxic Venom of the King Cobra

- Introduction The venom of the king cobra is highly neurotoxic to humans and if untreated, is likely to cause death in several hours from respiratory failure. (Norris, 2008) This paper will examine the neurotoxic effects of the king cobra’s venom on the central nervous system at the neuromuscular junction, the signs and symptoms of envenomation, antidote and supportive measures, and prognosis. The Neuromuscular Junction Movement of voluntary muscles is controlled by the central nervous system. Impulses originate in the brain, and are carried to the muscles by the neurons....   [tags: Health, Diseases, Venomous Snakes]

Term Papers
1311 words (3.7 pages)

Essay on Wicked Venom

- Her heart sunk with sorrow as he told her he had to leave her forever or receive a bite that would keep her living; but dead forever. The rancid venom will mysteriously spread right or wrong depending on the firmness of flesh. The article, “Our Bella, Ourselves” by Sarah Blackwood explains how young and middle aged women are unknowingly losing their identity to men who controlling drain the independency out of innocent women. Besides that, there are still women who fight battles with courageous values, allowing no one to defeat them....   [tags: Literary Analysis]

Term Papers
1101 words (3.1 pages)

Diseases Of The Pituitary Gland Essay

- ... In cases of hypopituitarism, single or multiple hormone deficiencies may be present concurrently, and the deficiencies affect each target organ activity or secretion on the thyroid, adrenal, or gonads glands, which also includes female and male sexual development. In children the condition results in slowed growth. There appears to be a predictable loss of hormonal function with increasing damage. The effect of loss in hormone secretion would depend on its particular body function....   [tags: Hypothalamus, Growth hormone, Anterior pituitary]

Term Papers
1831 words (5.2 pages)

Thyrod Hormone and Gland Essay

- Thyroid hormones are Tyrosine based hormones that require triidothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4). These hormones are produced by the thyroid gland. The Thyroid gland is primarily known for the regulation of metabolism, as well as proper production of T3 and T4. Iodine is the main component that is needed. Dysfunction of Iodine can lead to decreased production of T3 and T4, resulting in enlarged thyroid tissue and even lead to thyroid diseases. In order for the thyroid hormone to function adequate amount of Thyroxine (T4) should be found within the blood....   [tags: Iodine, Metabolism]

Term Papers
850 words (2.4 pages)

The Biology of the Venom of Hapalochlaena Maculosa Essays

- The Biology of the Venom of Hapalochlaena maculosa Hapalochlaena maculosa, commonly known as the blue-ringed octopus, is a golf ball-sized cephalopod inhabiting the waters around Tasmania and southeastern Australia with a highly potent neurotoxin that it uses as a predatory and defensive mechanism. H. maculosa does not actually synthesize its venom, but rather, the neurotoxin (known as maculotoxin) is produced by a bacterial symbiont of the octopus that lives in its salivary glands. While not overly aggressive, H....   [tags: Poisonous Australia Wildlife Essays]

Free Essays
3072 words (8.8 pages)

Essay about Jellyfish Venom

- Jellyfish Venom Almost anyone who has ever spent time near or in an ocean has been warned about being stung by jellyfish. Jellyfish have been ascribed a reputation as dangerous, often lethal animals. The exact actions of jellyfish toxins are not well understood, and the true danger presented by jellyfish is often exaggerated. This paper will attempt to answer several questions about jellyfish and venom. It will discuss what toxins make up jellyfish venom and the method in which these toxins are delivered....   [tags: Jellyfish Marine Life Essays]

Free Essays
3410 words (9.7 pages)