The Common Core State Standards Bring New Ideas About Instructional Content, Practice, And Organization

The Common Core State Standards Bring New Ideas About Instructional Content, Practice, And Organization

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The Common Core State Standards bring new ideas about instructional content, practice, and organization to classroom across the US. The CCSS differ notably from previous state standards, particularly in mathematics {Cobb:2011bw, Schmidt:2012io, Porter:2011kc}. During times of reform, districts often turn to professional development providers to support teacher learning {Little:1993di}. It is likely that districts will rely on professional development (PD) providers to help teachers as they learn the demands of the new policy and begin to implement them in the classroom.
PD providers mediate between policy and practice, promoting and translating policy ideas in PD sessions. This gives PD provides an important influence in the policy implementation process {Knapp:2003ia, Little:1993di, Coburn:2005dt}. Researchers have shown that the policy messages matter for the implementation process: the messages that teachers receive, and how they are presented and framed, impact how teachers understand and subsequently implement policies {Spillane:2002jn, Hill:2001us, Coburn:2004ty}. PD providers are positioned to shape policy messages, and thus researchers have documented how they influence how teachers understand and implement the policy {Coburn:2004ty, Coburn:2006tt, Coburn:2005eo}.
Moreover, PD providers occupy a unique space in the educational sector. The educational sector consists of “system” organizations—schools, districts, teacher, administrators, state educational offices—and “nonsystem” organizations—nonprofits, universities, textbook publishers, commercial enterprises {Rowan:2002uo, Coburn:2005dt}. Previous research has shown the important role that nonsystem actors play in the education. They can shape how schools implement new...


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... onto informal brokerage positions in social networks {Daly:2014fy}. Brokerage advantages stem from social network position.
Thus, we know little about how brokers in social networks engage with others to access and activate their social capital. While network position provides access to social capital, just as important are processes by which individuals activate, or actively use, that social capital {Smith:2005kh, LIN}. Few studies use both network structural measures of brokerage and detailed qualitative data to explore how brokers act {Obstfeld:2005ct is an exception}. No studies that we are aware of explicitly link network measures and qualitative data to identify brokers and explore how the interact with their network. To understand how PD providers interact in ways consequential for the policy messages they promote to teachers, making this link is necessary.

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