The ability to see color is something that many people take for granted. But, there are many people who go about life thinking that their vision is “normal,” when they are really experiencing their sense of sight through a color vision deficiency.
A typical person relies on the color of fruit to determine its ripeness. Looking at a green banana signals to the brain that it is not ripe nor is it ready to be eaten; while looking at a brown banana signals that it is overripe and should be thrown away or used for baking purposes. What if you could not see the color and had to rely on the commonly overlooked details, like shape or texture to identify the fruit?
Humans are not the only ones who can have color vision deficiencies as it is typical in a variety of animal species. Primate color vision has sparked interest of researchers because it is highly variable (Osorio, Smith, Vorobyev, & Buchanan-Smith, 2004). Dichromatic vision is the norm for many mammals, not including humans. As for primates, New World monkeys show a polymorphism of color vision as some are dichromatic, while others are trichromatic (Saito et al. 2003). Old world monkeys and the howler monkey, a New World monkey, are trichromats. This is due to a gene duplication different from that of Old World monkeys (Osorio et al.).
Brief History of primates and color vision:
Records state that the first primates appeared at 80-90 Ma (Jacobs, 2009). It is believed that the primates living at the time were nocturnal. Similar to other eutherian mammals (a mammal that is indigenous to North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia), primates had dichromatic color vision where their retinas most likely “featured single representative pigments from the SWS1 (...
... middle of paper ...
Leonhardt, S.D., Tung, J., Camden, J.B., Leal, M., & Drea, C.M. (2008). Seeing red: behavioral evidence of trichromatic color vision in strepsirrhine primates. Behavioral Ecology, 11, 1-12.
Osorio, D., Smith, A.C., Vorobyev, M., & Buchanan-Smith H.M. (2004) Detection of Fruit and the Selection of Primate Visual Pigments for Color Vision. The American Naturalist, 164, 696-708.
Simunovic, M.P. (2010) Colour vision deficiency. Eye. 24, 747-755.
Saito, A., Mikami, A., Hasegawa, T., Koida, K., Terao, K., Koike, S., Onishi, A., Takenaka, O.,
Teramoto, M., Mori, Y. (2003). Behavioral evidence of color vision deficiency in a protanomalia chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Primates. 44, 171-176.
Additional websites used as references: http://www.animalcorner.co.uk/wildlife/monkeys/monkey_oldworld.html
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Theories of Color Vision The visual abilities of human beings are incredibly fascinating. We can view a large range of color from a small selection of wavelengths along the electromagnetic spectrum, 400nm-700nm. Our understanding of this perception of color comes from two major theories Tri-chromatic theory of color vision and opponent-process theory. Both theories have their merits and one actually grew out of the other. The first theory that was proposed was the tri-chromatic theory. The tri-chromatic theory of color vision states that our color vision is dependent on the activity of our three color receptors.... [tags: Color, Color blindness, Color vision]
1574 words (4.5 pages)
- ... More studies were conducted by Linda Fedigan to find out the survival rate of infants whose mother had either trichromatic or dichromatic vision. The lifespan they took into account were the two years after birth, which was the period the infants were weaned. Color vision seemed to play no role in determining which infant got to live longer. Surprisingly, the same conclusion was made for post weaning females. Fedigan calculated the lifespan of the trichromatic females to be 11.99 years while the dichromatic females lived to be 11.46 years of age (6).... [tags: primates, new and old world monkeys]
1331 words (3.8 pages)
- What is Color. To understand what color is, we first need to understand what light is. Light, as perceived by humans, is simply electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between roughly 380 nm and 740 nm. Wavelengths below 380 nm and above 740 nm cannot be seem by the human eye. Electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength just below 380 nm is known as ultraviolet radiation. Electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength just above 740 nm is known as infrared radiation. The sun, black lights and fluorescent lamps are all sources of ultraviolet light.... [tags: physics eye sight vision color]
1891 words (5.4 pages)
- Media Article: Evidence for expanded colour vision for some colour blind individuals The media article that I have chosen talks about colour blindness and its potential benefit towards the individual possessing it. Deuteranomalous is the most common form of colour blindness, linked to an x-chromosome variant. Normally, humans detect colour through the work of three different (cone) photoreceptors. Individuals with deuteranomalous have a difficult time when determining particular colours from one another because their cone sensitivities are slightly different.... [tags: Color, Color blindness, Color vision, Cone cell]
1221 words (3.5 pages)
- Color is a feature that is possessed by very few mammals. K .Tansely in one of his books on visual system the vision in vertebrates commented that “On the whole mammals appear not to have color vision, except for the primates where it is well developed and almost certainly trichomatic”. The word trichomatic was derived from a theory given by French physiologist Palmer in 1777 which stated the presence three different types of infinite number of molecules present in the human retina. These types are for detection of colors like red, blue and yellow.... [tags: Biology, Visual System, Colors]
1753 words (5 pages)
- Color Vision Development in Infants: The Responsibility of Cone Types and Wavelength in Order of Color Development It is a wonderful thing to witness a sunset and see all the various colors that occur in our world. What would it be like if we didn’t view the sunset with all the beautiful colors that are perceived in it. According to Brown, Lindsey, Mcsweeney, and Walters, (1994) without factoring in brightness, newborn infants cannot differentiate between colors. This was found by testing infants in forced-choice preferential looking experiments or FPL experiments (Brown et al., 1994).... [tags: identities of color, cone types]
1516 words (4.3 pages)
- Are lemurs considered to be a primate. What is a primate and what does a primate consist of. A primate is known for having hands and feet that are very similar to the look of their hands. They also are known for their forward-facing eyes. Primates are not just lemurs. Primates also include prosimians, monkeys, apes, and even humans. The first primate to be developed was a lemur. The word lemur in latin means ghost because lemurs are a nocturnal animal. A Lemur is also an arboreal primate, which meaning that they live in all kinds of trees.... [tags: Primates]
2254 words (6.4 pages)
- Primates Observation The goal of the visit to the zoo was to observe and learn about the different non-human primates there are. The primary aim was to learn about the behavior the primates exhibit at various times of the day. The habitual mode of locomotion of the primates and the physical characteristics were a focus for this observation. Each primate was observed for twenty minutes. Patas Monkey There were eight Patas monkeys in total in the zoo.... [tags: Primate, Human, Gibbon, Male]
1173 words (3.4 pages)
- Color Blindness Many people refer to problems with one’s ability to see color as color blindness, however, unless a person can’t see any color at all, color vision problems should be called by another term. Common terms are abnormal color vision, color deficiency and color vision confusion. Females maybe be effected by color blindness, but usually they are just carriers. Males are more often affected. About 8% of males and 0.5% of females are effected by color blindness. Although color blindness may be a result of another eye disorder, the majority of color blind cases are hereditary and present at birth.... [tags: Abnormal Color Vision Color Deficiency]
741 words (2.1 pages)
- Primates Since the beginning of time, man has evolved through primate evolution. Each primate has acquired different characteristics over a period of millions of years. The ecosystem has experienced an enormous change in this phase. Most major changes have occurred due to the phenomenon of continental drift. Other such factors are deforestation, natural calamities and, more recently, global warming. These changes have caused primates to become less arboreal and more and more terrestrial. In order to survive the pressures of natural selection, terrestrial life and other factors primates have developed more upright locomotion, changes in body configuration, increase in size and loss of hair... [tags: Papers]
1345 words (3.8 pages)