Essay on Colonization Efforts in North America

Essay on Colonization Efforts in North America

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In the early 17th century, British colonizers began arriving in the New World in hopes of expanding their territorial domain. By the 18th century, Spanish colonizers had established trading posts and missions in the New World, covering a vast expanse of land that extended beyond even England’s colonial holdings. When the British arrived, they spurred on Indian depopulation and African and European immigration. The arrival of the Spanish resulted in near Indian extinction and a burgeoning international trade. Though Spain had an advantage of a century over Britain, both nations used the New World’s resources to further their mercantile goals, in the process, ravaging the native populations; however, Spain’s missionary efforts were more successful and the location of their respective colonies resulted in a monopoly of different economic commodities.
For example, British colonizers set up a royal colony in Virginia in the 1630s, and a proprietary colony in Maryland in1632. The rest of New England was settled by refugees of England’s religious persecution, also known as Puritans. The climate of the southern Colonies was very hot and humid, which was perfect for cultivating tobacco crops. However, tobacco depleted the soil of its nutrients, thereby making the colonists rely on the crop rotation system. This made tobacco cultivation very inefficient, labor intensive, and an extravagant effort, although the overwhelming profits made it seem worth the time. One of Britain’s rival colonizers, Spain, established its hold in present-day Mexico, Florida, the Caribbean, New Mexico, and Bolivia in the 16th century. In present-day Mexico and Bolivia, Spain found rich mines flooded with silver. At the turn of the 17th century, the...

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...olt of 1680, proved to ward off the Spaniards until 1716, when the Spanish authorities in Mexico established permanent settlements in Texas. Wars between the natives and the British, like the 1st and 2nd Anglo-Powhatan Wars of 1614 and 1644 proved to be major setbacks for the British.
British and Spanish colonization in North America has had a profound impact on the culture, history, and demographics of Canada, the United States, and Mexico. British colonialism created a scope for trading, fishing, lumber, and other exports to the Old World and also held a religious influence on the Eastern seaboard, while Spain laid the foundation for the modern day banking system and led to the evangelization of traditional native ceremonies. Both British and Spanish colonialism practically decimated the Native American population, an effect seen to this day.

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