Clinical trials are experiments involving humans. They test whether the treatments works and how effective they are. These trials are design to improve the health of patients. Until trials tested, there is insufficient information on whether treatment is effective or not. The absence of trials will cause a major potential risk that people will be given harmful treatments. Animal research is experiments involving animals. Animals provide scientist with complex living systems consisting of cells, tissues, and organs. According to the Animal for Medical Progress, research animals are used to focus on treatment and prevention of diseases.
II. Clinical Research
Prior to 1906, there was no regulation regarding human use in research. However on December 9, 1946, American military opened a case against German physicians and administrators. German physicians conducted medical experiments on camp prisoners without their consent. As, a result the Nuremberg Code was established in 1948. The code stated that “The voluntary consent of the human participant is absolutely essential” (CGU). The World Medical Association created guidelines for medical doctors in research involving human participants. Some of the guidelines include that participants must inform consent, the cons should not outweigh the risk, and researchers must be experienced, and the protocols must be reviewed by an independent committee (CGU). According to the “History of Ethics” timeline the US studied the effects of radiation during the World War II. The researchers used hospital patients, pregnant women, children with disabilities, and military members. Few of the participants gave consent and knew that were going to be exposed to radiation. After the wa...
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...e potential cure of Leber Congenital Amaurosis (LCA). LCA is inherited disease that causes blindness in infants. This disease does not affect all of the photoreceptors, so the eye still has capacity to detect light. Scientist took advantage of the healthy photoreceptors in briad dogs and injected a virus copying the normal RPE65 gene. This virus was chosen because it did not make the dog sick. Instead, making the dog sick, RPE65 gene restored the dog’s vision. In 2007, scientist gave a clinic trial to people with LCA. The results concluded that the gene therapy restored partially vision (Dingler.2012). In 2005, researchers used mice to discover that was no major side effects using a PARP inhibitor in humans. The PARP inhibitor blocked the growth of BRCA2- deficient tumors. This research increased the interest in PARP inhibitors as cancer drugs (AnimalResearchInfo).
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