As climate change becomes an increasing matter of concern, inaction seems to be irresponsible and of great consequences. From the depletion of the non-renewable resources to the significant climatic changes to the earth’s atmosphere, the negative results of dismissing the effect of global warming far outweigh the costs of preventing it. The largest source of emissions, currently, is the energy industry but the usage of electricity and heat is a vital part of modern day life that cannot be substituted. The demand, however, can be downsized and the source of energy can be decarbonized. As a result, Scotland has issued targets that aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To meet those targets, Along with a reduction in emission, energy efficiency policies have to be implemented. Increasing the energy efficiency can be achieved through public awareness which plays an important role in cutting down unnecessary electricity usage. Decarbonizing the supply would involve using natural, renewable resources that would produce little to no emissions such as wind, wave, bioenergy, etc.
The Scottish Parliament has set targets under the Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009 of a 42% reduction in emissions of six Kyoto Protocol greenhouse gases by 2020 and at least 80% by 2050. In “The Second Report on Proposals and Policies”, Scotland aims to decarbonize the energy supply in favor of a “low-carbon Scotland”, consequently further targets has been set including a “12% reduction in total energy demand by 2020, 100% electricity generation from renewables by 2020 and an interim target of 50% by 2015, 11% of heat demand from renewables by 2020” . As part of public awareness, the Scottish government has decided to have to at least...
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...earch needed for hydro-plants is minimal. Relative to other sources of renewable energy generation, hydro power is the least expensive renewable generation option (Figure 2). Hydro power also has a high efficiency (90 %)  and capacity factor ranging between 20-40 % (Figure 3). But the major advantage it possesses is its control over the produced electricity through the control of water flow (can be shut down and start up in a short time)  .
Disadvantages. On the other hand, hydropower plants are very dependant on rainfall, years which experience reduced rainfall catchments will have lower levels of hydro-electricity production. It can also affect the marine animals by displacing them or trapping them in machinery  or change the flooding schemes by displacing the sediments upstream where they accumulate and reduce storage capacity of the dam  .
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