Biber (2007, as cited in Elbow, 2010) writes that there are few differences between spoken and written Englishes. Fundamentally, spoken Englishes require an understanding of phonics, and written Englishes an understanding of graphics (Crystal, 2005). To understand spoken language is to take meaning from the speech of others (Bangalore, Hakkani-Tur & Tur, 2006). Spoken Englishes involve speaking and listening and written Englishes involve writing and reading (Essberger, 2001). Both modes can be either formal or informal depending on the context and medium required (Elbow, 2010). While there are innumerable contexts, the purpose of this report is to focus on the classroom and home contexts. This report will also note the differing aspects of spoken and written Englishes each context and interaction requires, depending on the audience.
There are multiple spoken and written interactions within the classroom. All communication is given and received differently depending on the social and cultural background of each participant (Green, 2006). Teachers must consider such differences when communicating with students, parents and fellow teachers.
When teachers speak to students, their communication can be both one-sided and reciprocal and are usually in Australian Standard English (ASE). Instructions can be; casual, semi-formal or formal. Age and cultural or language background of the receiver, along with subject matter, impact the formality and complexity required for each interaction. Young children in preschool and students who use English as a second language require simple, casual language such as “sit on the mat”. Whereas older children understand increasingly complex and forma...
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...an”, “Pa” and “Poppy” may be used by children. Cultural expectations will impact this with Korean English speakers most likely using “Halmonee” when addressing their grandmother.
Cards, notes and letters are the most common forms of written communication between children and grandparents. Home language would be implemented in these interactions along with informal sentence structure, tenor (Ljungdahl & March, 2014) and restricted code (Emmitt, 2010).
In conclusion, spoken and written interactions can be varied and yet have similarities. Different types of Englishes are used by participants within each context and should be factored in to each individual interaction. The register, style, vocabulary and pragmatics required will vary and all participants need to adjust their use of these elements to enable successful communication to take place. (1533 words)
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