Learning is defined by psychologists as any change that occur in behavior due to experience. The behaviorism theory says that learning is the same for animals or humans. There are two type of learning: associative learning, which occurs when an individual put in relation two event, and the observational learning, which happens with observations and imitations. Conditioning, which is the procedure of learning the connection in the associative learning, is divided in classical and operant conditioning.
The classical conditioning is when a neutral stimuli is associated with a natural stimuli in order to obtain the ability to produce the same response. Ivan Pavlov, a famous Russian psychologists, demonstrated how the environment can influence an organism’s response through the classical conditioning. In other words, how a neutral stimulus can become a condition stimulus. A conditioned stimulus (CS) is a neutral stimuli (NS) that acquired the ability to produce a conditioned response (CR) after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US). An unconditioned stimuli is the one without learning yield a response. The response obtained after the conditioned stimuli is called a conditioned response (CR) and the one obtained after an unconditioned stimuli is called an unconditioned response. Pavlov’s experiment showed the different step of the classical learning. The first step called the acquisition is defined as the initial learning of the connection between the US and CS. The next step is the generalization or discrimination. The generalization is defined as the ability of a stimuli comparable to the CS to yield the same response. On the other end, the discrimination is the process in which only certain stimulus prod...
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...ual forget because a memory get in the way of the other. The decay theory is the disintegration of the memory due to absence of reinforcement over time. The tip-of-tongue memory phenomenon is when an individual has the feeling to know something but can’t get it of his or her memory.
This chapter emphasized broadly memory: it defines memory, it discusses how memory is built, and it makes the light on the weak points of the memory and show how to improve them. The part of the chapter that caught my attention is the encoding failure of the memory. The first explanation was that the information never reached the long term memory, and I strongly agree with that. The human’s senses need a key to unlock the doors leading to the memory, but where to find that key, that can open all the doors of the memory at any time without deteriorating these doors?
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