The classical theory of crime says that "humans have free will and are responsible for their own actions" (Hess, 2013 p.66). The formal study of criminology began in Europe in late 1700’s as theories on crime and punishment started to materialize. Italian attorney Cesare Beccaria is recognized as a founding father of the Classical School, which is based on that most human behavior results from free will and rational force. The positivist view holds that humans are shaped by their society and are the products of environmental and cultural influences.
Ironically another man of the name, Cesare Lombroso, was an early proponent of the Positivist School. This criminology theory brought the need for evidence for a conviction to happen. More important, however, was that the Positivist view saw human behavior as central to the study of criminology (Online). The theory was that all people are different, and not just physically and mentally, but also in terms of their environment and life circumstances. Some of these circumstances where environmenta...
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