In a 2011 article titled “A Scoping Review to Identify Organizational and Education Theories Relevant for Interprofessional Practice and Education”, Reeves et al., described theoretical frameworks as coherent and systematic articulations of a set of issues communicated as a meaningful whole ...
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...ur is established by what has been observed in the past and the influence that a person has been subject to. The concept requires the introduction of new influences for change or the removal of existing factors that maintain the behaviour. When an individual acknowledges that their present condition is unacceptable and they are dissatisfied with their situation a gap between what is believed and what needs to be believed for change, occurs. During this time, what was believed may now be seen as invalid and this creates a state of anxiety. Learning anxiety triggers defensiveness and resistance because the pain of having to unlearn what previously had been accepted as a normal state of being. According to Schein (1999a), three stages occur in response to learning anxiety: denial; scapegoating or passing the buck; and manoeuvring and bargaining (Schein 1999a).
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