According to Skinner’s theories, “Reinforcement does not strengthen the response instance that produces the reinforcer.” Rather, reinforcement can increase the likelihood that a comparable response may occur within the future. For one bottom-line, “behavior is not caused by something that has not yet happened.” Similar to operant conditioning, “the emission of a response reflects past conditioning, so the response occurs because similar responses were reinforced earlier, not because it will be reinforced later.” Skinner agreed that the “initial high response rate seen in extinction sessions exemplified this important aspect of operant conditioning” (Iversen, 1992, pp. 1325-1327). Theoretically, Skinner identified two aspects of reinforcement, one is the “pleasing effect of reinforcing stimuli, the other is their strengthening action.” Furthermore, Skinner emphasized that “feeling pleased by an event does not necessarily make a person want to repeat the respons...
... middle of paper ...
...al Record, 62(1), 125-131.
Prather, W., & Golden, J. A. (2009). A Behavioral Perspective of Childhood Trauma and Attachment Issues: Toward Alternative Treatment Approaches for Children with a History of Abuse. International Journal Of Behavioral Consultation & Therapy, 5(2), 222-241.
Skinner, C. H., Williams, R. L., & Neddenriep, C. E. (2004). Using Interdependent Group-Oriented Reinforcement to Enhance Academic Performance in General Education Classrooms. School Psychology Review, 33(3), 384-397.
Sutherland, K. S., & Singh, N. N. (2004). Learned Helplessness and Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders: Deprivation in the Classroom. Behavioral Disorders, 29(2), 169-181.
Wilson, G. (1981). Relationships between experimental and clinical psychology: The case of behavior therapy. International Journal Of Psychology, 16(4), 323-341. doi:10.1080/00207598108247423
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Introduction Today, the impact of organizations lives from a formal perspective and takes on a total affect on how humans act. The behavior can stem from what is eaten, and the settings that individuals’ chose to take for granted in an organization. The notification of organizational behavior comes after observing either good or bad results to show that individuals’ do take aspects of lives for granted. . Scientist use the technology of methodology from a scientific perspective to help individuals’ better understand how organizational settings work (Jex & Britt, 2008).... [tags: Psychology]
1939 words (5.5 pages)
- Burrhus Frederic Skinner People do on a day to day basis, many actions without realizing it, and most of the time, they don’t know why they do them. Certain reinforcements, some positive, and some negative have conditioned their actions and thoughts. All organisms, including humans, are greatly influenced by the consequences produced by their own behavior. The environment holds the key to most of the changes that occur in the way a person behaves and a human’s own behavior brings consequences that change his or her actions (B.... [tags: B.F. Skinner Psychologists Psychology Essays]
1141 words (3.3 pages)
- ... With varied goals in mind, what then should be the thought of the instructor. To provide an open and trustworthy source of information and enlightenment for the pupils, so that they may gain from it what they will based on their current status in life. In order to achieve this, a teacher must have mastered their subject matter, and have also prepared ahead of time with not only one subject but all of the links and facets that could tie into the lesson. An instructor must be open minded but also firm so as not to allow faulty opinions to dissuade from truth.... [tags: Education, Knowledge, Learning, Psychology]
1171 words (3.3 pages)
- During the 20th century, the science of psychology developed a role that identified it as an essential of life. John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward Tolman are a vital part of that journey transcending from the 19th century to what is now known as “modern day psychology” in 2012. In this succinct writing the contributions of each man will be revealed and deliberation to define their difference shall be incorporated herein. Although, each psychologist has commonalities in their perspectives, there is also a form of dissemination among them based on their theories and perspectives.... [tags: Psychology]
1615 words (4.6 pages)
- B.F. Skinner was considered the father of behavioral approach to psychology and a noticeable spokesperson for behaviorism. According to Corey (2013), he advocated radical behaviorism. In other words it placed a primary importance on the effects of environment on behavior. Skinner was a determinist; he did not consider that humans had free choices. He recognized the existence of feeling and thoughts, but disagreed about them causing humans action. In its place, he underlined the cause-and-effect links between objective, observable environmental conditions and behavior.... [tags: Behaviorism, Psychology, Classical conditioning]
707 words (2 pages)
- B.F. Skinner B.F. Skinner was one of the most influential theorists in modern psychology. His work was very important and has been studied by many for years. Skinner was a very straightforward man and a very educated man. His theories have helped mankind in many ways. He has studied the behavior patterns of many living organisms. Skinner was a well-published writer. His work has been published in many journals. He also has written many books on behaviorism. His most important work was the study of behaviorism.... [tags: Psychology Psychological Skinner Essays]
1603 words (4.6 pages)
- Social Psychology Concepts and Principles Nikolitsa Vagenas Azusa Pacific University Social Psychology Concepts and Principles Nikolitsa Vagenas Azusa Pacific University Social Psychology is the study of social behavior such as people’s thoughts, feelings, behaviors in certain social situations (Aronson, E., Wilson, T. D., Akert, R. M., & Sommers, S., 2015). There are many concepts and principles in this field, specifically in social influence, which was talked about in chapter 8.... [tags: Psychology, Social psychology, Sociology]
1080 words (3.1 pages)
- ... 313). For example, infants that are encouraged by their parents’ smiles or laughs when they make “baby sounds” are more likely to continue to make those sounds. Operant conditioning also influences the cognitive development, learning and memory, perceptual development, and social development of infants through early interactions with their parents (Gerhardstein, Kraebel, & Tse, 2006). The behaviors that were reinforced during the 10 year old child’s earlier years will play a large role in how his future behaviors will develop.... [tags: Reinforcement, Operant conditioning, Punishment]
1348 words (3.9 pages)
- A learning, or behavioral theory, in terms of human development, follows the view that the focus of psychology should be behavior, the way we act. A behaviorist places value on attributes that one can see and therefore study, as opposed to the invisible attributes, such as thinking, feeling, and other brain activity that occurs without one even knowing (Craig & Dunn, 2010, p. 14). There are three important modern behavior or learning theorists: Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, and B. F. Skinner. However, as stated by William Crain John Locke was the “Father of environmentalism and learning theory”, although Ivan Pavlov and B.F.... [tags: Psychology, Watson, Skinne, Locke]
1090 words (3.1 pages)
- B.F. Skinner was born on March 20, 1904 Susquehanna, Pennsylvania and had passed away on the 18 August 1990 at the aged of 86. Skinner was born in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania, to Grace and William Skinner. His father was a lawyer. He became an atheist after a Christian teacher tried to assuage his fear of the hell that his grandmother described. His brother Edward, two and a half years younger, died at age sixteen of a cerebral hemorrhage. He attended Hamilton College in New York with the intention of becoming a writer.... [tags: Psychology, Abraham Maslow]
1498 words (4.3 pages)