During World War I, the federal Division of Negro Economics sought to integrate the black labor force and integrate it into the worker-starved munitions industries. At the time of the New Deal, many administrators insisted on racial fairness, including Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes, who banned racial discrimination in hiring by his Department, and by the Public Works Administration. Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins, who eliminated segregation within her Department. World War II brought the temporary elimination of discrimination as federal policy when Franklin Roosevelt issued executive order 8802, creating the Fair Employment Practices Committee, to ensure that defense contractors did not discriminate against minorities (MacLaury, 2010). However, none of these efforts lasted beyond the national emergencies they were created to help end.
Without the urgency of economic disaster or war, President Kennedy’s executive order 10925 created the President’s Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) and included a provision that government contractors "take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin” (UCI Office of Equal Opportunity and Diversity, n.d.). Lyndon Johnson expanded on this with exec...
... middle of paper ...
...clusion, it is important to note that during this time white
men were not perceived to have valid issues about their place in the new more workplace, but rather as the problem. The target remained on minorities, leading many to believe that this was merely a new name for affirmative action and a form of reverse discrimination (Anand and Winters, 2008). Also, no standard developed among consultants and practitioners.
Starting in the late 1990s and continuing through today, the spotlight of many diversity programs is on inclusion and cultural sensitivity. The new paradigm is that it is as important for the black woman to understand the Asian woman and vice versa in order for businesses to remain competitive not only in the U.S. but in the global marketplace as well. How will these goals be achieved? That is where effective strategic human resource management comes in.
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