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The civil law was originated by the romans law. The roman’s development of civil law consisted of more than a thousand years of jurisprudence by the twelve tables which hold the foundations for law systems today. The laws endorse equal treatment, and fairness. Also, the laws covered inheritance, marriage, and courtroom procedures. The civil legal system today is a branch dealing with definition and enforcement all private or public rights such as, Contract, family, intellectual, property, and tort laws which are called misdemeanors. An example of a misdemeanor dispute is the panhandling in Salt Lake City, according to Salt-Lake-city weekly, “three men were arrested for panhandling in Salt Lake City. Therefore, civil rights attorney Brian Barnard filled a complaint on the behalf of the three men. In the complaint the attorney explained how First Amendment rights were violated by state statute when police cited them while ignoring other comparable solicitations. The settlement that reached the city has agreed to not issue tickets to people who hold signs asking for money or assistance, so long as the individual does not stand in a location that would pose a safety risk to themselves or to others”. Under civil law, the government provides a forum for the resolution of torts were the plaintiff tries to prove a wrong was committed. Another example of a hypothetical civil lawsuit is that a former patient sues a doctor for misdiagnosis of cancer .The plaintiff claims that the defendant did not monitor her symptoms accordingly. As a result, her cancer spread throughout her body. In the end of the case, the court’s held the defendant liable. Therefore, his license was taken away, and he was sentenced to two years in prison.
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Criminal law, also known as penal law is a body of rules that defines conduct in a society. An individual who break the norms of the community, or threatens the welfare of the public is prosecuted. A crime for which the punishment is a year or more in prison or death is called a felony. Moreover, depending on the extremeness of the crime it is classified as a C (arson, kidnapping, drunk driving, and sexual assault), D (possession of a weapon), B (violent crimes punishable with an extensive period of incarceration), or 4 (expect to face jail time, but the amount depends on jurisdiction) felonies therefore, depending on the crime that has been committed the defended trail is held in federal or state court. According to USCourts.gov, the Federal court cases deal with constitutional law, cases between two or more states, or those that involve public figures. State courts deal with criminal, contractual, tort, or family related cases. An example of a federal (felony) case is, which was reported by the political daily,“the federal criminal case against Tucson shooting suspect Jared Lee Loughner” (Cohen, 2011). In the case Lee allegedly shot and killed six people, including a federal judge and a nine year-old girl, and wounded 14 others. Therefore, his fate will be determined by the federal court in June, 2011. Another example for a state court system is a robbery crime. But who determines what a crime is; by the state. There are only a few federal laws about robbery, such as it is a federal crime to rob a bank. Therefore, to keep track of the victims the law enforcement reports surveys to statistics of crime.
The substance of crime has become an increasingly important theme of political, academic, and public debate. Therefore, there has been a greater demand for reports concerning the extent crime in society. Crime rates method is information known to the public by criminal statistics, which is the best indication of the level of crime within a society. As a result, many individuals wonder the distinctions between a crime rate and the dark figure of crime. Crime rate evaluations of crime are likely to be inaccurate, because of mount of unreported or undiscovered crime by Police, Changes in legislation, technologies and police workforce, and Social economic changes are common reasoning for inaccurate reports of crime rate. Therefore, in 1966 researches held an experiment of a victim surveys. The results of the experiment were so successful of discovering unreported crimes that in 1972 the federal government made it an ongoing victim survey. Then, the dark figure of crime was born; the term was used by criminologists and sociologists to describe the amount of unreported or undiscovered crime. Hence, criminologist or researchers ask victims of crime about their experiences. Through, numerous methods for measuring crime, such as, The amount of crime in society gets known when it is reported to the police, through public victim surveys ,such as studies of offenders who admit committing crime, hospital accident wards, and battered women's refuge centers and similar ones ultimately, will give researches a better understanding of crime.
In summary, the civil law and criminal law are in many ways similar; both are designed to control individuals’ behavior. To do so, laws were created to control the population in whole from harming each other. Therefore, there are different levels of punishment to an offender; those are called felonies and misdemeanors. The punishment depends on the degree of seriousness a crime. The system holds reports of statistics of victims which is called crime rate. However, in every system there are the dark figures of crime (unreported crime).
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Lawmakers Calling for Civil Discourse Haven't Always Been Civil. (2011, January 12). Retrieved from Foxnews: http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2011/01/12/lawmakers-calling-civil-discourse-guilty-past-inflammatory-remarks/
COHEN, A. (2011, January 12). Jared Loughner's Trial: Previewing the Tucson Massacre Case. Retrieved from Political daily: http://www.politicsdaily.com/2011/01/10/ready-jared-loughners-federal-trial-previewing-the-tucson-m/
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