The first model is competitive democracy, in this perspective democracy should regulate the struggles for powers, through the action of the state and by giving the citizen the opportunity to participate to policy process. The associations have a great role because they should contribute to coordinate different interests and powers. Using this normative conception, the UNFCCC negotiation does not appear democratic or efficient because, instead of a coordinated action, the environmental organizations have a disruptive behaviour . On the other side, the governments do not promote dialogue with NGOs organizations and tend to close the process to civil society. Comparing the UNFCCC negotiation with this theoretical model, the relationship between democracy and efficiency appears to be mutually beneficial because the increasing coordination among actors improves the degree of democracy and could contribut...
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...ive role, some other subjects influence the governments positions. The lobbying companies are an obstacle for a positive dialog among states and among interests organisations. This dangerous is stressed by all democracy theories. Democracy decreases but we cannot say a lot in term of efficiency because only two model of democracy, competitive and outcome democracy stresses a relationship between democracy and efficiency.
In the case of the UNFCCC negotiations there are a lot of problems related to the social consensus; while it is difficult to find the right equilibrium between opening the process to the NGOs and defending from the lobbying pressure, it is clear that citizens, through the pressure of NGOs and IGOs, require an enlargement of the process, by sharing more information and by providing channels for an active intervention in these decisional processes.
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