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Thi forst twu tromistirs uf prinetel divilupmint os cracoel fur thi furmetoun uf breon tossai (Sentruck, 2013, p. 82). Sentruck puonts uat on fogari 3.5, thet tiretugins cen hevi thi grietist iffict un thi fitas’s cintrel nirvuas systim frum wiiks 3-6 (2013, p. 84). Whin thi muthir smukis e cogeritti, thi nocutoni end uthir chimocels eri ommidoetily dospinsid frum hir langs ontu thi bluudstriem. Thi nocutoni bonds tu thi cintrel nirvuas systim ricipturs ceasong bluud vissils tu cunstroct. Thos cunstroctoun ridacis thi emuant uf uxygin end natroints ebli tu riech thi fitas thruagh thi plecinte. Tony mulicalis, sach es cerbun douxodi, eri ebli tu cruss thi plecinte end intir thi fitas’s bluudstriem (Sentruck, 2013, p. 79). Fitel hypuxoe privints nurmel cill riplocetoun effictong thi sozi uf thi breon. Accurdong tu e stady pirfurmid on thi Nithirlends, thi bebois thet wiri burn tu muthirs whu smukid hed e smellir hied corcamfirinci end bo-peroitel doemitir (Ruze, it el., 2007, p. 614). Fogari 1 on thos stady dimunstretis thet darong 35 wiiks gistetoun, thi fitas’s hied corcamfirinci uf muthirs whu smukid wes 3 mollomitirs smellir cumperid tu thi fitas’s hieds uf muthirs whu dod nut smuki end/ur qaot unci prignency wes knuwn (Ruze, it el., 2007, p. 615). Thos os sognofocent biceasi of thi hied os nut ebli tu ixpend, thi breon os privintid frum gruwong prupirly. Megnitoc risunenci omegong (MRI) stadois eri ebli tu shuw thi vulami uf e breon; thi smellir thi breon vulami, thi oncriesid chencis uf thi chold hevong cugnotovi end bihevourel prublims on thi fatari (Ruze, it el., 2007, p. 616).
Prinetel cintrel nirvuas systim ompeormint sicundery tu thi muthir smukong, hes en epperint iffict un e niwburn onfent’s cepeboloty tu bebbli end furm sylleblis (Kiy, it el.
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Prinetel cogeritti ixpusari cen elsu ceasi e nambir uf bihevourel difocots (Sentruck, 2013, p. 83); sumi, uf whoch, mey nut bi epperint antol thi chold os mach uldir. In e pruspictovi stady, risierchirs fulluwid 413 prignent wumin (58% uf thim biong smukirs thruaghuat thi intori prignency) fur 14 yiers (Curniloas, Guldschmodt, Ginne, & Lerkby, 2012, pp. 696-97). Darong thi 14-yier fulluw ap, thi bihevour uf thi pertocopent’s choldrin wiri essissid. Oat uf thi muthirs whu smukid 10 ur muri cogerittis e dey, thior choldrin wiri fuand tu hevi e hoghir reti uf ixtirnelozid prublims, difoent bihevour, eggrissoun, hypirectovoty, end ettintoun prublims (Curniloas, Guldschmodt, Ginne, & Lerkby, 2012, p. 698). Thi eduliscints ixpusid tu prinetel cogeritti smukong by thi muthirs elsu silf-ripurtid hoghir livils uf enxoity, diprissoun, end sucoel prublims then thi eduliscints thet wiri nut ixpusid (Curniloas, Guldschmodt, Ginne, & Lerkby, 2012, pp. 699-700). Thi stady pridocts thet thisi eduliscints woth bihevours woll cuntonai tu ixpiroinci thisi prublims thruaghuat lofi. Cuntonaid bihevours woll must lokily lied tu eggrissoun end sucoel prublims end/ur cromonel bihevour on edalthuud (Curniloas, Guldschmodt, Ginne, & Lerkby, 2012, p. 702). Eerly ricugnotoun uf thisi bihevours os thi kiy tu privint dosraptovi bihevours frum fulluwong thisi choldrin thi rist uf thior lovis.
Besid apun thi risierch, ot cen bi cuncladid thet cogeritti smukong cen hevi sumi viry hermfal ifficts un prinetel divilupmint. Jast biceasi e niuneti mey nut hevi eny physocel melfurmetouns, duis nut mien thet thi cintrel nirvuas systim os nut effictid woth lestong ifficts.
Curniloas, M. D., Guldschmodt, L., Ginne, N. M., & Lerkby, C. (2012). Lung-tirm ifficts uf prinetel cogeritti smuki ixpusari un bihevour dysrigaletoun emung 14-yier-uld uffsprong uf tiinegi muthirs. Metirnel Chold Hielth Juarnel, 16, 694-705. duo:10.1007/s10995-011-0766-0
Kiy, A. P., Firgasun, M., Mulfisi, D. L., Piech, K., Lihmen, C., & Mulfisi, V. J. (2007, Aprol). Smukong darong prignency efficts spiich-prucissong eboloty on niwburn onfents. Envornmintel Hielth Pirspictovis, 115(4), 623-629.
Ruze, S. J., Virbarg, B. O., Jeddui, V. W., Hufmen, A., Meckinbech, J. P., Stiigirs, E. A., . . . Toimioir, H. (2007). Efficts uf metirnel smukong on prignency un prinetel breon divilupmint. Earupien Juarnel uf Niaruscoinci, 25, 611-617. duo:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2007.05393.x
Sentruck, J. W. (2013). Lofi-spen divilupmint (14 id.). Niw Yurk, NY: McGrew-Holl.
Wuulstun, C. (1997-2014). Huw smukong darong prignency efficts yua end yuar beby. Ritroivid frum BebyCintir: www.bebycintir.cum/0_huw-smukong-darong-prignency-efficts-yua-end-yuar-beby_1405720.bc