Aging has become a worldwide issue as attentions to health status of older populations increase. As people age, they face different situations that lead them to the current point, satisfaction and health or vise versa. Researchers have conducted and identified various reasons affecting the health of elders. For example, childlessness, marital status, unemployment, and poor social integration are all recognized risk factors that influence the quality of life of older populations. Childlessness has raised a great concern since 1990, as one in every five elders aged over 65 report not having children (Zhang & Hayward, 2001). Another research has also argued, due to the high prevalence of delayed marriage, high divorce rates, and voluntary childlessness nowadays, numbers of childless elders are expected to increase over the next few decades (Zhang & Hayward, 2001). Zhang and Hayward (2001) also state that around 25% of older populations suffering from loneliness due to spouseless and childlessness in the near future is anticipated (Zhang & Hayward, 2001). Family, the basic component of one’s life, has always been considered as the primary source of well-being among older persons as it provides informal cares such as physical, emotional, and financial supports (Zhang & Hayward, 2001). In addition, presence of children or children in-law correlates with a better understanding and experiences of security, immortality, success, companionship, and affection among the elderly parents compared to older persons without children. Childless elders are often found to have limited social networks and passive engagement in social activities (Zhang & Hayward, 2001). However, effects of childlessness among older population are inconsis...
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...998). Loneliness and depression in middle and old age: Are the childless more vulnerable? Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 53B, S302–S312.
Mair, C. A. (2010). Social Ties and Depression: An Intersectional Examination of Black and White Community-Dwelling Older Adults. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 29(6), 667-696.
Plotnick, R. D. (2009). Childlessness and the Economic Well-being of Older Americans. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 64B(6), 767-776.
Wenger, G. C., Scott, A. & Patterson N. (2000). How important is parenthood? Childlessness and support in old age in England. Ageing and Society, 20, 161-182.
Zhang, Z., & Hayward, M. D. (2001). Childlessness and the Psychological Well-Being of Older Persons. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 56(5), S311-S320.
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