Chemistry : The Purification Of Substances Essay

Chemistry : The Purification Of Substances Essay

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Organic compounds are naturally permeated with impurities that can possibly pose problems in organic synthesis reactions. Therefore, an important part of organic chemistry lab is in the purification of substances. Unit three was a technique experiment in distillation, and its purpose was in the introduction of two types of distillation methods, although there are various other types. The main purpose of the lab was learning how to distinguish the appropriate time to use either of the distillation methods and learning how to interpret the analysis tools employed to determine the purity of a distillate. The first week of the unit separated acetone and ethanol via the fractional distillation method, while the second week separated the acetone and ethanol via the simple distillation method. The products from both weeks were analyzed by Infrared Spectroscopy and Refractometry.
Distillation is an important process that is utilized in the purification and separation of a wide variety of compounds based on the physical property of boiling points. A mixture of organic compounds is heated, and the temperature rises to the boiling point of the more volatile component. The more volatile substance is vaporized and passed through the condenser, where it is converted to a liquid. The other component of the mixture resides in the mixture until the most volatile substance has mostly vaporized off. Subsequently, the temperature rises again until the boiling point of the second substance is reached. This vaporization-condensation cycle allows for an effective separation and purification of compounds based on the theory of boiling points. The efficiency of the distillation process can be related to multiple factors, but the more apparent is the boi...


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...ilanes. The produced silicon can be use as a semiconductor in the production of other devices such as cell phones, calculators, and medical equipments. The process of distillation has many useful functions in daily life.(6).
In order to successfully perform a distillation, the knowledge of the boiling points of compounds being distilled is essential. For this experiment, the normal boiling point of acetone is 56°C, while the normal boiling point of ethanol is 78.37°C indicating that the acetone will vaporize first due to its lower boiling point, and since the difference between the boiling points is less than 70°C (22.3°C), expectations is that the fractional distillation should yield purer results, and therefore more effective. The purity of each type of distillation can be substantiated by the Infrared spectrum, distillation curve, and refractive index obtained.

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