It is the most important pharmacologically active constituent of opium, the resin copied from the dried juice of the opium poppy. It was first established into clinical practice more than 200 years ago. It is the prototype opioid drug, whose analgesic and rewarding effects are mediated by activating opioid receptors which are found mainly within the central nervous system (CNS). Morphine continues the strong opioid of choice for moderate to severe cancer pain and it is on the World Health Organization’s important drugs list.
Cancer patients are usually unwilling to be managed with morphine as they fear its adverse effect and the risk of addiction or they have it as solely a comfort for the dying rather than a legitimate analgesic.
The chemical structure of morphine is that a phenanthrene alkaloid, containing of five condensed rings which are structurally rigid. It is a weak base with a PK 7.9 and with PH 76% of its molecules is ionized and it is relatively water soluble and poorly lipid soluble. It is a available for management use because of the hydrochloride, sulphate and tartrate salts in large different formulations. Cancer patients prefer to take morphine orally than any other route of administration because of analgesic given regularly to prevent recurrence of pain usually for months or even years.
Morphine creates its effects by being an agonist at opioid receptors, located basically in the spinal cord and brain. It is a pure opioid agonist with primary affinity for the mu subclass of receptor, a member of the G- protein coupled receptor (GPCR) super family, while also some affinity for the kappa and delta subclasses. The most crucial responses mediated by activation of opioi...
... middle of paper ...
...the full effect of any dose alteration can be assessed at this time.
Modified release (MR) morphine preparation has a slower onset of action and a later peak effect than NR formulations. There are twice-daily preparations with an onset of action of 1-2h, reaching peak drug levels at 4h. The once daily MR preparations have slower onset and reach peak levels at 8.5h.
The most widely recognized side effects are sedation, respiratory depression and constipation as well as nausea and vomiting, while there are others common such as hpogonadism, immunosupression and tolerance as well as physical and psychological dependence. They can be reduced all these adverse effects of morphine by five possible approaches which are reducing the dose, changing the route and using opioid-spring adjuvant drugs as well as opioid rotation and symptomatic management of the side effect.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- “The number of people receiving methadone maintenance treatment in Ontario has increased sharply in recent years, from 6,000 in 2000 to 38,000 in 2012” (CAMH). Though this number seems threatening, it is a sign that Canada’s effective methadone treatments are reaching more people. Methadone is a synthetic opioid; it has a different chemical structure but similar effects on the body to other opiates such as morphine, heroin, codeine and OxyContin (Harvard Health Publications). Methadone is not used to cure, but rather treat addictions that individuals have to more dangerous opioids.... [tags: Opioid, Drug addiction, Morphine, Heroin]
964 words (2.8 pages)
- Diacetylmorphine, known as heroin, is an extremely addictive drug that comes from the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. To harvest, the seed of the opium is cut and juice flows out. The main ingredient contained in the juice of the opium seed is morphine, which can be converted into heroin by chemical processes . When introduced into the body, heroin mimics the peptide substances called endorphins. The specific endorphins that heroin effects are neurotransmitters in the brain that is responsible for pain, pleasure, and fatigue.... [tags: Heroin, Drug addiction, Morphine, Addiction]
733 words (2.1 pages)
- From the time immemorial, drug addiction has been in existence. The persistent use of heroin is very destructive to our body. Heroin is a preparation synthesized from morphine, and it is an illegal and highly addictive drug that is extracted from the seed pod of some poppy plants (NIH, 2016). Pure heroin is essentially white powder while another form of heroin encompasses brownish powder that is combined with starch, sugars, quinine, or powdered milk. It produces a rush after being taken and depicts a state of profound indifference and may enhance energy.... [tags: Drug addiction, Addiction, Heroin, Morphine]
803 words (2.3 pages)
- Over the years there have been several amazing advances in medical science from transplants and rehabilitations to cancer treatments. One area that has not had as many advances is the treatment of pain and discomfort in the terminally ill patient. To be more precise there have been many advances in opioid medications over the years. The introduction of Fentanyl and Oxymorphone have been wonderful additions to the management of pain and discomfort. The part that has had the least amount of change is the utilization of these medication for the terminally ill and palliative patients.... [tags: Opioid, Morphine, Buprenorphine, Renal failure]
1469 words (4.2 pages)
- Description Think about these substances: mothballs and cinnamon. Both of these have a strong and unique smell. This is because these substances are made of aromatic compounds. In this lesson, we will learn all about aromatic compounds. !!!Aromatic Compounds Let’s think of substances that have are fragrant or have distinct odor like perfume, vanilla and cinnamon. All these substances are known to have a distinct smell and are fragrant, or we can say aromatic. The smell is because these substances are made of aromatic compounds.... [tags: Chemical bond, Covalent bond, Benzene]
925 words (2.6 pages)
- Discussion: The synthesised ethyl cinnamate weighed 0.56 g, which was equivalent to 140% of the theoretical yield of 0.414 g. This excessive yield was resultant of the impurities within the product, where the solvents, particularly the dichloromethane, were not sufficiently removed from the product. In figure 3, the peak at 5.22 ppm with a normalised intensity of 1.00 evidenced the significant proportion of the dichloromethane in the product, and the peak at 0.88 ppm with a normalised intensity of 0.25 indicated some remaining hexane.4 The unreasonable yield was mostly attributed to these.... [tags: Wittig reaction, Aldehyde, Chemical reaction]
1242 words (3.5 pages)
- Morphine Mariah Evans The University of Southern Mississippi An opiate, or narcotic, is a sedative drug that depresses the nervous system and is used to relieve pain and induce sleep. Opiates bring on a sense of euphoria or that to some people may become addictive. The euphoric sensation that it gives off is the reason some people develop a tolerance to receive the same effect. This leads to an abuse or an addiction. Morphine is the main active compound in an opiate. It is made from the juice obtained from the seeds of a poppy plant called Papaver Somniferum.... [tags: Morphine, Opioid, Drug addiction, Heroin]
1364 words (3.9 pages)
- There are approximately 12 million crimes committed in the United States every single year (Snyder). That is by far the worst in the world. No other nation has more than about 6 million reported crimes per year (Snyder). Every year one out of five people is a victim of a crime in the United States. No other nation on earth has a rate that is higher. The city of Detroit, Michigan literally looks like a war zone and violent crime is thriving. So far this year in Detroit, car thefts are up to 83%, robberies are up to 50%, burglaries are up to 20% and property destruction is up to 42% (Snyder).... [tags: Drug addiction, Heroin, Morphine]
1481 words (4.2 pages)
- !!!What Is A Chemical Formula. Everyday, we encounter chemical substances. In our household alone, substances that we use to clean, and those that are staples in our medicine cabinet, as shown in the picture below, are made up of chemical substances. These chemicals that we use everyday are made up of atoms of a fixed proportion and these atoms are arranged in a certain way. How do we know what the atoms are, their proportion as well as their arrangement. This information can be gathered from the chemical formula of the substance.... [tags: Chemistry, Chemical element, Chemical substance]
1046 words (3 pages)
- Applied Pharmacology Morphine is excreted through the urinary system and the biliary system. In the urinary system, the drug is excreted according to the amount of urine being excreted by an individual (Armstrong & Cozza 2003). After being consumed by the liver, morphine is passed to the blood stream, from where it reaches the kidney for excretion. The drug is then taken up in the urinary system and directed to the urinary bladder for excretion. The drug is metabolized in the liver after which it is passed to the kidney.... [tags: Morphine Essays]
453 words (1.3 pages)