A few points dealing with solubility (Ketcha, 47):
NaOH is to be used with carbozylic acids and phenols to form salts.
NaHCO3 is to be used with carboxylic acids (not phenols!) to form salts.
HCl or H2SO4 will form salts from organic bases.
A neutral acid/base will be insoluble in water and soluble in oranic solvens if it has a molecular weight greater than 100.
Salts of acids/bases are insoluble in organic solvents
Adding the acid or base to the acid or base salt will result in the neutral compound.
Organic solvent cannot be completely soluble with water.
To be able to separate the two liquids A and B, the density of the two must be utilize. Density is mass divided by unit volume. If A is denser than B, then overtime the mixture would result in two layers: the top is B, the bottom is A. These layers can then be separated by using a separatory funnel.
Using extraction and density, the unknown analgesic component can be removed from an unknown mixture. With a pure sample, the component’s melting point can be compare to the melting points of acetanilide (114-115 degrees C) or phenacetin (134-136 degrees C) to figure out what the analgesic component is, keep in note that any impurities can cause a lower melting point ...
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...xperiment was a success. The analgesic component was separated from the mixture by using extraction and the properties of density. It was also identified by using the melting point of known compounds and comparing them to it. The main issue that should be resolve in future experiments is workable equipment. The broken flask causes some liquid flowing out when shaken, causing the weight percent recovery to be lower than necessary. This translates to less product than we would otherwise would have acquire from the mixture. If the purpose of this was to extract the analgesic component from the mixture for a company to sell, the managers would not be happy with loss of product. While the experiment was a success as identifying the component as acetanilide, it would not be a full success on the condition of extracting the analgesic component completely from the mixture.
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