Chemical And Physical Properties Of Phenol Essay

Chemical And Physical Properties Of Phenol Essay

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Toxikinetics is concerned with the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of a toxicant. A discussion on the ways in which phenol can become toxic, the ways in which the body naturally excretes phenol, and the way it breaks down phenol to detoxify it is needed.
3.1 Absorption
As was shown earlier, phenol has specific chemical and physical properties, but it’s specific lipophilic property is the most concerning. Exposure to phenol is a concern for mostly industrial workers, especially those employed in the tar sands and solvent areas. The general public is relatively safe from exposure to phenol. However, it should be noted that the general public should be aware of phenol exposure as many industrial products contain phenol, such as detergents and synthetic fibres. Since phenol can bea solid, liquid, or gas, it can be ingested through oral injection, inhaled through its vaporous form, and come into contact with the skin (dermal).Absorption through the lungs (inhalation) is concerning as it will go directly to the bloodstream through the alveoli/ capillary interface. Absorption through the skin is considered the primary route of exposure in the work force . he major receptor sites are the gastrointestinal tract, along with the liver, lungs, and kidneys. The liver and the intestines have a large capacity to conjugate phenol and following this process, phenol gets excreted out in urine, which will be later explained in metabolism. Since phenol is highly soluble in water, an aqueous solution of phenol enhances the dermal absorption. Dermal exposure is relatively the worst kind for humans, where conjugates don’t develop as readily through this route. However, it should be noted that human skin does have a natural barri...

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...r laboratory analysis of phenol sampling in biota, a chemical method and enzymatic hydrolysis. The chemical method uses acidic hydrolysis, while the enzymatic method uses sulfuric acid. There are a number of other sampling methods used in the lab, ranging from GC-FID (gas-chromatography with flame ionization detector) to spectrophotometry. Environmental sampling to detect phenol in the environment are also plentiful. Detection of phenols in water is done by absorption on XAD-resins and on carbon. Detection isn’t easy in the environment, as significant losses can occur during extraction.Analytical methods for environmental sampling include, but not limited to are:
• GC-FID and GC-MS (Gas chromatography - mass spectrophotometry) for water
• HRGC-MS (high resolution gas chromatography) for groundwater and soil
• HRGC-ECD (Electron capture detector) for potable water.

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