Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. Leguminous tree, subfamily Mimosaceae is an important multipurpose tree of desert and commonly found in arid of Rajasthan, Gujarat and undisturbed area of Punjab and Haryana. Locally it is known as kumata / khair / kheri. In Gujarat it is known as kagar; goraduja baval. In Hindi it is also known as khor, humath. In other countries, it is known as geelhoak (Africans); alloba (Arabic); gum arbic, Sudan gum Arabic, gum acacia, three-throned acacia (English); acacia du senegal (French).
Acacia is abundant in savannas and arid regions of India, Australia, Africa and America. Many species of Acacias are exceedingly robust and grow under the most severe conditions. Fabaceae or Leguminosae is a large and economically important family of flowering plant. It is commonly known as legume family, pea family, bean family and pulse family. Fabaceae is third largest family of flowering plants behind Orchidaceae and Asteraceae, with 730 genera and over 19400 species according to Royal Botanical Gardens and Acacia with 900 species.
Tree grows up to 8 m in height, with umbrella-shaped or flat or rounded crown (Maundu et al., 1999). It is based chiefly on characteristics of the seed and seedlings, absence of stipular spines (but prickles present) and pollen characteristic. It is very branched with many upright twigs (Von Maydell, J.H. 1990). Selection of the best seed sources of A. senegal for given region is necessary for maximum productivity in plantation forestry and agro forestry systems (Subramanium et al., 1992). Tree breeder wants to explore the naturally occurring variability which permits tree breeder to make rapid genetic advance.
All forest species have large heterozygocity and they also show conside...
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...e species. Accordingly Chikamai and Banks (1993) reported that in A. senegal, the chemical and molecular structure of gum arabic differs according to botanical origin of the populations. As a result the functional properties, uses and commercial value are dependent on origin (Chikamai and Odera, 2002).
Recently scientists have shown an increasing interest on the reproductive biology of tropical trees such as Leucaena (Brewbaker, 1983), the genus Acacia (Tybirk, 1989; Tybirk, 1992; Buitlaar, 1993; Diallo, 1997), Saba senegalensis (Traoré, unpubished), and the monospecific genus Faidherbia albida (Gassama-Dia et al, 2003). Regarding B. aegyptica, some preliminary studies on seed pregermination treatment and vegetative propagation were mentioned by El Nour et al. (1991). This paper presents results on the flowering, pollination and reproductive capacity in A. senegal.
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