For this phase one of the devices from the previous enrichment phase was taken and made more challenging over the course of six days (24 hours of observation total), with a new feature being added every two days for a total of three challenges. After careful consideration it was decided that device 1 would be used, as it was the only device where cheating could not occur and was solved completely at least once. The first challenge (Figure 1d) was the addition of approximately 80g of metal washers added to the bottom of each bottle to increase the weight, the second (Figure 1e) was stuffing newspaper into the bottle openings which needed to be pulled out before accessing the food, and the third (Figure 1f) was spray-painting the bottles black so that the amount of food inside could not be seen except by looking through the cleared opening.
Daily averages were calculated by summing the amount of time spent performing each behaviour and dividing by the total time for that session and taking the mean across all sessions per bird per day. To compare changes across experimental conditions these means were grouped into behavioural categories that were then averaged across all days and transformed into percentages to give the mean percentage of time spent in each category for each condition. The mean amount of all-solved times was calculated for each device whenever all food was successfully removed; this did not always occur and so only days where it did were used for this calculation.
Yellow remained on the nest for the majority of time during the enrichment phase after the baseline condition, which at least affected the occurrences of behaviours for both birds in the socially-based categories (social, agonis...
... middle of paper ...
...igure 4). A pattern emerged for Blue with percent of time decreasing at least 50% from the first day each challenge was presented to the second; Yellow had an increase during the black-out challenge on day 6, though the lowest percent recorded was on this day by Blue. All-solved times varied between challenges: not all food was removed from the device on day 1 while it took the birds 9 mins on day 2, 69 mins on day 3 to 13 mins on day 4, and 25 mins on day 5 to 10 mins on day 6. Statistical tests
Friedman’s Tests were applied to determine statistical significance of p<.05 for each functional category across conditions and days in both phases but no significant differences were found (Table 4). It is worth noting that pseudoreplication was used for the enrichment phase as Blue was the only subject analyzed (Kuhar 2006); each of the six days per condition were included.
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