The Celtic And Roman Religions Essay

The Celtic And Roman Religions Essay

Length: 1533 words (4.4 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Powerful Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

The Religion of Celts
Though there are records of deity names, and archaeological remains including altars, little is known about the specific religious beliefs of the Celts. Their burial practices included burying food, weapons, and ornaments with their dead, which suggests a belief in life after death. The druids, the early Celtic priesthood, were said by Caesar to have taught the doctrine of transmigration of souls along with astronomy and the nature and power of the gods. Transmigration is a philosophy of reincarnation incorporating the specific belief that after death, the soul of a living being is then transferred (or transmigrates) into another living form and thus takes birth again.
The Irish believed in an Otherworld, which they described sometimes as underground and sometimes located on islands in the Western Sea. This Otherworld was believed to be a country where there was no sickness, old age, or death, where happiness lasted forever, and a hundred years was as one day.
According to classical authors, the Celtic religion was based in three professional classes: the Druids, the Bards, and the Vates.
The Druids were the Celtic version of modern priests, but were also philosophers, scientists, lore-masters, teachers, judges and counsellors to the kings. The Druids linked the Celtic peoples with their numerous gods, the lunar calendar and the sacred natural order. In Commentarii de Bello Gallico Caesar gives the most complete account on the Druids. According to him the Druids constituted a "priest like" class, and were guardians of the unwritten ancient customary law. They had the power of executing judgments; the most dreaded being the exclusion from society.
The caste of the Druids was not hereditary, although the...


... middle of paper ...


...pire ended with the abdication of Emperor Romulus Augustus in 476, Christianity survived it, with the Bishop of Rome as the dominant religious figure.

Bibliography
Cunliffe, Barry, (1997) The Ancient Celts. Oxford, Oxford University Press

Caesar, Julius. De Bello Gallico. Book V, § XIV

MacKillop, James (1998) A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Paul-Marie Duval. 1993. Les dieux de la Gaule. Éditions Payot, Paris.

Patrick K. Ford (ed/trans). 1977. The Mabinogi and other Medieval Welsh Tales. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Augustinus Hibernicus. "De Mirabilibus Sacrae Scripturae". King of Mysteries: Early Irish Religious Writings edited by John Carey. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2000

MacMullen, Ramsay, 1984. Paganism in the Roman Empire

—— 1997. Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Celtic Religion, Mythology and Culture Essay

- Celtic Ten children were playing on a beach on a cold and foggy night. When a lost pony appears, the children were enchanted by the beautiful black hide of the pony with skin so smooth it could be a seals skin. They start to walk toward the pony as its mane goes drip, drip, drip because water is cascading down the pony’s mane. Nine of children get on the pony’s back touching the skin that is so cold it could be death. The tenth child unsure of the pony keeps his distance, till the pony chases after him....   [tags: ancient traditions and beliefs]

Powerful Essays
1664 words (4.8 pages)

Essay on Ritual Art Celtic Society

- Ritual Art Celtic Society Pre-Christian Celtic Society About the pre-Romantic period of Celtic civilization (from the end of the 6th century BCE to some time in the first century CE) there is little written as record of their culture or ritual. We know of there existence through reference by Greek writers to their relation to the source of the Danube and to their being near the Greek colony that became Marseilles. Later writings refer to their rituals and superstitions, which had, as with other uncivilized cultures, played a huge part in the lives of the people....   [tags: History Religion Religious Essays]

Free Essays
1666 words (4.8 pages)

Other Religions' Views on Satanism Essay

- Religion Most religions like Christianity, Hinduism, and Islam have well defined meanings an exception is Satanism. Most people have their own definition for Satanism.  Some people feel that non-Christian religions and all Christian denominations other than their own are forms of Satanism. This would imply that all Buddhists, Hindus, Moslems, and Jews. In fact at least 75% of the world's population would be Satanists. Others feel that all religions other than Judaism or Christianity are inspired by Satan and thus are forms of Satanism....   [tags: faith, worship, pagan]

Powerful Essays
1333 words (3.8 pages)

The Celtic Celebration of Samhain and Halloween Essay example

- For this essay I would like to compare and contrast the past and present, in regards to what was once known as the Celtic celebration of Samhain and its present day—somewhat—equivalent, that which is embraced now-a-days in the United States, Halloween. Halloween takes its roots from\the Celtic-pagan celebration called Samhain; although it has also been sculpted by other cultures in the centuries that have past, the Celts are the foundation of the ideas of such a celebration. I would like to establish more of a contrast between the two celebrations: what exists now and here versus what existed then and there....   [tags: Celtic People, Present Holiday]

Powerful Essays
900 words (2.6 pages)

Essay on Women in Celtic Literature

- Most readers of the famed Irish and Welsh tales focus on the male characters and their great feats. Celtic literature, however, features a full complement of female characters that deserve recognition; from warriors and rulers, to helpmates and daughters. These women function as either their own entity, or extensions of their male relations. All play crucial roles in their perspective texts, essentially driving the action of the plot and setting into motion a series of events that affect the male characters....   [tags: Celtic Literature]

Powerful Essays
842 words (2.4 pages)

Heroes of Celtic and Germanic Mythology Essay

- Heroes of Celtic and Germanic Mythology Throughout the myths of the Celtic and Germanic peoples of northern Europe tales of epic heroes and their extraordinary deeds abound. These tales depict heroes performing a variety of incredible feats; many of which appear to be magical, superhuman, and, quite honestly, utterly impossible (e.g., wading across oceans, defeating armies virtually single-handedly, and other astounding exploits). Since the Celtic and Germanic tribes of antiquity inhabited neighboring lands and lived in close proximity to one another (as many of their modern descendants continue to do: i.e., in Great Britain), it is not surprising that they often established intimate rela...   [tags: Celtic Germanic Mythology Beowulf Essays]

Powerful Essays
3690 words (10.5 pages)

The Role of Religion in Roman Society Essay

- The Role of Religion in Roman Society Throughout the history of Rome, from the monarchy to the late empire, religion had played a great role in it's society and was involved in almost every aspect of the life of the Roman citizen. It was common for each house to have it's own patron god/gods and ,on special occasions, the head of the house would make a sacrifice to the personal gods of the family. Also, great festivals were usually held in honor of certain gods and would include spectacles like chariot races and Gladiatorial fights....   [tags: Religion Roman Gods Belief Systems Essays]

Powerful Essays
3524 words (10.1 pages)

Celtic Life Essay

- Upon hearing the term ‘Celtic,’ the first things that come to mind are the awe of their intricately patterned jewelry, lively music, and the flowing tunics they wore. These people are also known for being fierce warriors and for their superstitious, nature-centered religion. Celtic customs are still alive and well in places like Ireland and the western reaches of Britain, but within this essay I shall explore their origins and traditions. To start off, I will address the Tumulus peoples. They were among the growing number of societies whom spoke dialects that branched off of Indo-European; a language originating in, and spread from, the border between the continents of Asia and Europe....   [tags: Culture ]

Powerful Essays
1112 words (3.2 pages)

Roman Religions Essay

- The ancient Romand worshiped many gods, godesses and spirits, each of whom was responsible for a different part of life. Juno was the goddess of woman; Jupiter, the king of the gods was also the god of the sky; Mercury was the god of merchants; Wulcan the god of fire; Mars the god of war; Minerva the goddess of wisdom; Venus the goddess of fertility and love. The ancient Romans adopted gods and goddesses from other cultures as well. Bacchusor or Dionysus, the Greek god of wine; Cybelle, the Turkish goddess of motherhood; and Isis from the Egyptian pantheon who was concerned with reincarnation....   [tags: essays research papers]

Free Essays
1140 words (3.3 pages)

Essay about Celtic Lifestyle

- Celtic Lifestyle During the period when the Celts existed, which is approximately 800 BC - 400 AD, they were just a little tribe compared to other large civilizations such as the Romans and Greeks. They still managed to conquer many regions and prove victorious in most of their battles. Who were these Celts that survived numerous struggles. Where did they originate. What kind of social structure did they have. What kinds of beliefs did they have. What sort of weapons and armor did they use in battle....   [tags: European Europe History]

Free Essays
1657 words (4.7 pages)