Cell Genetic Elements Of The Field Of Genetics And Model Organisms Essay examples

Cell Genetic Elements Of The Field Of Genetics And Model Organisms Essay examples

Length: 946 words (2.7 double-spaced pages)

Rating: Better Essays

Open Document

Essay Preview

Model organisms have long held a special place in the heart of most researchers. Easily accessible these organisms propagate without difficulty while providing ease of maintenance. Advances in the field of genetics and model organisms are synonymous. In the specific case of Mobile genetic elements (MGE), Zea mays (maize), proved to be the model organism which allowed one very astute Scientist to notice something revolutionary. At the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York, while investigating the role broken chromosomes play in providing maize with a mosaic pattern, Barbara McClintock identified something else entirely. “The Barbara McClintock Papers” explain her discovery: “Among the plants she grew that summer, she found two new genetic loci that she named "Dissociator" (Ds) and "Activator" (Ac). Contrary to its name, Dissociator did not merely dissociate, or break, the chromosome. It turned out to have a variety of effects on neighboring genes, but only when Activator was also present. In early 1948, she made the surprising discovery that both Dissociator and Activator could transpose, or change position on the chromosome. These were not ordinary genes--in fact, to McClintock, they were not genes at all, they were gene controllers. Between 1948 and 1950, she developed a theory by which these movable elements regulated the genes by selectively inhibiting or modulating their action. She referred to Dissociator and Activator as "controlling units"--later, as "controlling elements"--in order to distinguish them from genes.” Her observations contested the widely accepted convention that genes were in a fixed position on a chromosome. Her findings, dismissed at the time, would ultimately prove to be factual as science and technolo...


... middle of paper ...


...the human genome is something known as an Alu element. A quick wiki search will reveal that with more than a million Alu elements sprinkled throughout, this element serves as the “most abundant transposable element” in the human genome, about 10.7%. These active TEs can cause numerous problems. The textbook Essentials of Genetics provides several cases of the diseases caused by these Alu elements. For example an Alu element inserted into certain genes have been proven to cause: familial breast cancer (BRCA2 gene), hemophilia B (factor IX gene), acholinesterasemia (ChE gene), and neurofibromatosis (NF1 gene). “It is thought that about 0.2 percent of detectible human mutations may be due to transposable element insertions…About 10 percent of new mouse mutations and 50 percent of Drosophila are cause by insertions of transposable elements in or near genes” (Klug 276).

Need Writing Help?

Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.

Check your paper »

Genetics: Past, Present and Future Essay

- Throughout the ages, patterns of inheritance have always been studied. People have always been curious about what causes the appearance of certain traits in individuals. However, by the time the 21st century commenced, science found that the answers to these questions can be found in each cell of the body. Genes. But what are genes truly. Who were the scientists who contributed towards their discovery. What are the recent advancements in the field of genetics, and what does the future hold for this field....   [tags: Genetic Engineering]

Better Essays
2598 words (7.4 pages)

Essay about Genetic Diversity Of The Science And Technology Field

- DNA is used in many ways in the science and technology field. It can be used for research and for improvements to the way humans live. A molecule of DNA is made up of a Deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group and one of four nucleotide bases (adenine, guanine, thymine and cytosine). It is made up of two strands with complementary bases held together with hydrogen bonds. The differences in the DNA of individuals in all species can cause variation in a population, leading to genetic diversity. A greater the number of alleles available in the population increases the diversity....   [tags: DNA, Molecular biology, Gene, DNA replication]

Better Essays
1555 words (4.4 pages)

Essay about Genetic Engineering And The Field Of Genetics

- Recent developments in the field of genetics have led to significant change in the way genetics contribute in medicine. Genomics is the human genetic information lying inside the nucleus of a human cell, which provides all the qualities, physical and psychological characteristics of a living organism. Classical genetic is a term which means the methods and techniques used in the study of genetics before the advent of molecular biology these techniques are: genetic and SNP (Single-nucleotide polymorphism) mapping, gene linkage, and pedigree analysis to identify genes responsible for traits that cause diseases (Paritosh, K....   [tags: Genetics, Gene, DNA, Genetic disorder]

Better Essays
1513 words (4.3 pages)

The Theory Of Inheritance Within The Field Of Genetics Essay

- Inheritance spans a large range of topics in the field of Genetics. It is one of the most important concepts to learn, when dealing with this particular branch of science. Inheritance though complicated, has led to the discovery of the causes of diseases, gene combinations, and the numerous types of gene expressions. Whether it be Mendelian, Non-Mendelian or another type of expression they are all the key to understanding the genetic make-ups of living organisms. Single Gene Inheritance is a process in which traits are controlled by entirely one gene....   [tags: Genetics, Genetic disorder, Gene, Gregor Mendel]

Better Essays
1050 words (3 pages)

Essay about Genetic Engineering And The Medical Field

- This paper goes over genetic engineering and how it is used today in the medical field as two types on humans, disabled genetic engineering and trait genetic engineering. This two types of genetic engineering are still debatable since they have to surpass many obstacles and laws. The sources gave statements from professionals and experts on genetic engineering, biomedical science, biomedical engineering, and human anatomy and physiology. The individuals gave their inputs on how they view genetic engineering on human beings....   [tags: DNA, Genetics, Human, Genetic disorder]

Better Essays
1090 words (3.1 pages)

The Genome Revolution Essay

- The Genome Revolution For numerous years, the world’s most prestigious geneticists have been trying to crack the human genetic code, the intricate puzzle that defines each and every one of us as individuals. With the monumental success of the Human Genome Project, a new and exciting biological frontier is ready for exploration. The ramifications of the knowledge derived from this endeavor will no doubt be staggering for residents of the Rio Grande Valley and the world at large. The use of genetic sequencing in the medical field has innumerable possibilities; genomic medicine, as this new field is now called, will enable the human race to make immense advances in understanding how ou...   [tags: Genetics Genetic Engineering Essays Papers]

Better Essays
1083 words (3.1 pages)

Genetic Testing : A Field Of Study Essay

- Genetic testing is a developing field of study. It allows for doctors to read the human genome and see different traits about a person or zygote. “The genome is an organism’s complete set of genetic instructions”(What is a genome). Genetic testing lets the doctor see if their patient is likely to have a genetic disease and makes choosing a medicine that will help treat it much easier. The knowledge of this will help doctors and the patient be better prepared for possible illnesses but has some negative effects....   [tags: Genetics, DNA, Human, Cancer]

Better Essays
1127 words (3.2 pages)

Essay on Human-Chimpanzee Divergent Genetics

- Being human, we possess a quality that is unlikely to be found in other known organisms. Since perhaps the dawn of existence, the human psyche has strived to explain the origins of this quality and what it reveals about man’s conception. The ancient Greeks surmised that the Titan god Prometheus sculpted humans in the image of the gods from the mud of the earth. The ancient Egyptians posited that humans came into being from their sun god Ra’s tears. Now in modern times, scientists believe the key to our origins lies within our closest relative, Pan troglodytes, commonly known as the chimpanzee....   [tags: Genetics]

Better Essays
2014 words (5.8 pages)

Genetics and Criminality Essay

- There have been and still are many debates about how a person’s genotype can be a significant factor in the development of your personality, but more relating to criminality. It is very hard to say that your genetic make-up is not a factor in who you become as a person, but I fully believe that the environment also is a factor as well. Having a genetic predisposition does not mean that you are automatically going to inherit whatever trait that was passed down from your parents. Everyone has a choice in who they become as individuals; it all just depends on the environment that you are raised in and the people that are around you when you are growing up....   [tags: Genetics]

Better Essays
1245 words (3.6 pages)

Genetics Essay

- Genetics Mengele promoted medical experimentation on inmates, especially dwarfs and twins. He is said to have supervised an operation by which two Gypsy children were sewn together to create Siamses twins; the hands of the children became badly infected where the veins had been resected. (Snyder) Cohen tells us: "The only firsthand evidence on these experiments comes from a handful of survivors and from a Jewish doctor, Miklos Nyiszli, who worked under Mengele as a pathologist....   [tags: Papers]

Free Essays
1418 words (4.1 pages)