The National Park Service (NPS) and the U. S. Department of the Interior (USDI) drafted the Catoctin Mountain National Park Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (2006) to impart knowledge of a need for action to facilitate the regeneration of vegetation and reforestation of the park. A population of white-tailed deer that was exceeding an estimated 100 individual animals per square mile was over browsing the vegetation. According to the EIS a population of 15 to 20 individuals is optimal to protect herd health and allow regeneration of the vegetation. The EIS listed four alternatives that were investigated in depth according to the National Environmental Protection Act requirements (FHWA, n.d.) these included full disclosure of estimated fiscal costs for each action. The EIS continued, offering multiple actions that were not investigated due to various documented reasons (NPS & USDI, 2006), including the dismissal of public hunting due to congressional legislation prohibiting public hunting in national parks and the unlikelihood of changing the legislation. After describing the alternative actions, the EIS offered the environmental effects of the proposed action alternatives. The cumulative affects were then discussed in great detail including but not limited to affects on socioeconomics, health and safety, and archeology.
Alternative A was the baseline required by NEPA, the no action alternative (FHWA, n.d.). This illustrated that the current actions were only protecting a few particular plants from over browsing, but does not address the underlying issue of over browsing due to the overpopulation of deer (NPS & USDI, 2006). Alternative B offered the use of large exclus...
... middle of paper ...
...nmental Impact Statement (EIS). (n.d.). Environmental Review Toolkit | FHWA. Retrieved May 12, 2011, from http://www.environment.fhwa.dot.gov/projdev/docueis.asp
Hothorn, T., & Müller, J. (2010). Large-scale reduction of ungulate browsing by managed sport hunting. Forestry Ecology and Management, 260, 1416-1423.
Michigan Department of Natural Resources (1999). Deer baiting issues in Michigan: Michigan Department of Natural Resources Wildlife Division issue review paper 5. Michigan: Michigan Department of Natural Resources.
National Parks Service, & U. S. Department of the Interior (2006). Draft white-tailed deer management plan: Environmental Impact Statement Catoctin Mountain Park. Thurmont, Maryland: Nation Park Service.
Stankowich, T. (2008). Ungulate flight responses to human disturbance: A review and meta-analysis. Biological Conservation, 141, 2159-2173.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- Review of the Mountain When I started to read Miracle on Voodoo Mountain, I was quite moved by the faith and honor that Megan Boudreaux portrayed. In my mind, I could think only of how scared she must have been to leave here loved ones behind and venture a world away. Without a concrete plan of how she was going to survive, she put her faith in God and followed her dreams. I cannot say that I found the book to be as amazing as I originally thought it would be, but I have learned many things about Haiti and the culture, and I am thankful for the experience.... [tags: Mind, Thought, Haiti, Slavery]
1450 words (4.1 pages)
- The film genre of the Western has long since proven to be more about the conflict and showdowns that occur in the storyline. Usually the western genre incorporates traditional western motifs and icons and adheres to those common plot structures of the genre, but Brokeback Mountain is different from what is to be normally expected because it does not seem like a traditional and conventional Western film at all. Brokeback Mountain has several different twists to it, like the more modern take on it – traditionally, characters in Western films were riding horses, but because Brokeback Mountain is a more modern movie, the two characters Jack and Ennis are seen traveling in cars and... [tags: Brokeback Mountain Essays]
1012 words (2.9 pages)
- Cold Mountain is a popular book and movie written by Charles Frazier. Cold Mountain is a book about two lovers, Inman and Ada, during the Civil War, who depart on separate journeys in hopes of reuniting with one another. The novel is viewed as the physical journey of Inman from the Civil War to Cold Mountain and the inner journey of Ada, but people neglect the sheer importance that Inman’s spiritual journey has on the book. Inman’s physical journey is really non-connected episodes that are linked together by the thread that is Inman’s spiritual sense.... [tags: Cold Mountain Analysis Review]
1308 words (3.7 pages)
- Setting "Brokeback mountain Mori" begins in a mental institution, passes through an anonymous motel room and tattoo parlor, and ends in the back of a police car. Brokeback mountain never explicitly mentions whether Leonard has been in a mental institution (though certain ambiguous clues indicate that perhaps he has). It also passes through motel rooms and tattoo parlors, but it adds other locations, such as Natalie's house, the bar where she works, a diner, and the abandoned building where Leonard kills both Jimmy and Teddy.... [tags: Brokeback Mountain Essays]
1801 words (5.1 pages)
- The major plot outline in both the short story and the movie The central drama and point of conflict in any love story is the obstacle between the lovers. In the best known tragic love story in Western history, Romeo and Juliet, the obstacle is their feuding families; in the classic film Casablanca it's virtue and in Brief Encounter, it's the marriage of one of the lovers. This is a story of unfulfilled love in Wyoming. Ennis and Jack, a ranch hand and an aspiring rodeo rider, work together as sheep herders in the summer of 1963 on Brokeback Mountain in Wyoming.... [tags: Brokeback Mountain Essays]
1242 words (3.5 pages)
- Author Isaac Asimov once wrote,” Never let your sense of morals prevent you from doing what's right.” This saying came to mind while reading both Montana 1948 and Brokeback Mountain. The authors, Larry Watson (Montana 1948) and Annie Proulx (Brokeback Mountain) both write stories with the internal conflict of man vs. himself. In Montana 1948 Larry Watson’s main characters the Hayden family cope with a situation of sexual abuse that forces them to search for their moral base and choose between right and wrong.... [tags: Brokeback Mountain Essays]
1302 words (3.7 pages)
- Hardships on Cold Mountain The events one goes through in his or her life often shapes the person he or she becomes. The challenges faced early in life work to strengthen one’s personality and enable them to live and flourish. In the novel Cold Mountain by Charles Frazier the reader learns about the many obstacles Ruby has had to face while growing up. These hardships added to the person that she became and made her strong enough to face the obstacles that come later in life. In being faced with many obstacles in life Ruby was able to learn from them, become a stronger person and therefore survive.... [tags: Cold Mountain Essays]
641 words (1.8 pages)
- The Passion of Mountain Bikes It has been a decade in the making, but the mountain bike has become a passion for many people. Along with this passion it has also become the most environmental way to get from point A to B. It has gone through a very intense evolution process over the past decade. It all started with some guys from California who took their bikes out for a ride on their day off, they modified their bikes and turned a hobby of theirs into a worldwide phenomenon. The mountain bike's rapid increase in popularity was influenced by social and economic situations, and by technological improvements that had the needs of bike riders in mind.... [tags: Mountain Bikes Transportation Essays]
4906 words (14 pages)
- Cold Mountain In Charles Frazier’s Cold Mountain, the theme of music is one of the novel’s most powerful themes. From symbolizing character growth to the healing of physical wounds, music plays an integral part in this novel. While many critics will point out that music has little effect on the human psyche, Charles Frazier shows his belief that music does indeed have a profound effect on the human mind throughout Cold Mountain. Throughout the novel, Inman, Ada, Ruby, Stobrod, and many other characters experience music that allows them to keep faith against the odds or even heal their wounds.... [tags: Cold Mountain Charles Frazier]
2616 words (7.5 pages)
- Michael Warner states in his book The Trouble with Normal that "the [American] culture has thousands of ways for people to govern the sex of others," that a certain regulation of sexuality and desire can be designed "directly, through prohibition and regulation, and indirectly, by embracing one identity or one set of tastes as though they were universally shared, or should be" (Warner 1). According to Warner, the logical process that follows such a regulation ensures a certain shame attaches to any "taste" that is not "universally shared." That this one "taste" "should be" shared implies that it is not universal.... [tags: Brokeback Mountain Essays]
2326 words (6.6 pages)