Generally, variations in slaughterhouse wastewater composition are significant, depending on the production procedures, byproducts’ recovery and cleaning procedures (Pozo et al., 2003). The high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio suggests an easily biodegradable wastewater, the relatively low BOD to total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN) ratio suggests a need for nitriﬁcation and possibly even nitrogen removal and finally the relatively high total suspended solids (TSS) characterize the slaughterhouses’ wastewater (Chen and Lo, 2003; Lovett et al., 1984). The TKN values are highly dependent on the blood handling process of the slaughterhouse. The concentration of contaminants in slaughterhouses wastewater vary, with COD, TKN and TSS concentration ranging from 1000-20000 mg L-1, 150-10000mg L-1 and 250-5000mg L-1 respectively (Li et al, 2008). For large scale slaughterhouses, on-site biological treatment is recommended by the European Commission to remove organic carbon and nutrients before the wastewater is discharged to surface water or local wastewater treatment plants (EC, 2005). This has forced many industries to treat their wastewater to a level obtainable by implementing the best available technology for wastewater ...
... middle of paper ...
...s for the management of biosolids. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 15, 308–317.
31. Wei Y., Van Houten R. T., Borger A. R., Eikelboom D, H., Fan Y., 2003. Minimization of excess sludge production for biological wastewater treatment. Water Research 37, 4453-44671.
32. Yasui H. and Shibata M., 1994. An innovative approach to reduce excess sludge production in the activated sludge process. Water Sci. Technol. 30, 11-20.
33. Yang, S.-S., Guo, W.-Q., Zhou, X.-J., Meng, Z.-H., Liu, B., Ren, N.-Q., 2011. Optimization of operating parameters for sludge process reduction under alternating aerobic/oxygen-limited conditions by response surface methodology. Bioresour. Technol. 102, 9843–9851.
34. Yamamoto K, Hiasa M, Mahmood T, Matsuo T. Direct solid±liquid separation using hollow fibre membrane in an activated sludge aeration tank. Water Sci Technol 1989;21:43±54.
Need Writing Help?
Get feedback on grammar, clarity, concision and logic instantly.Check your paper »
- ... (Grady et al. 1999). It is well known that SRT affects sludge settling properties (Metcalf and Eddy, 2003) and the types of bacteria present in the activated sludge (Gerardi, 2006). Furthermore SRT is the key for controlling biomass production in a WWTP, elevating SRT to one of the most critical design and operational parameter in AS process. In this study and due to the nature of AS treatment and the slaughterhouses’ influent composition, a large amount of excess sludge was generated daily.... [tags: biodegradabilit, organic pollutant, engineering]
848 words (2.4 pages)
- The treatment of surface wastewater is aimed at bringing contaminated water back to its previous state for domestic use or otherwise. Some of the sources of wastewater include industrial effluents from manufactures, agricultural effluents, agro-industrial as well as domestic wastewater from sinks, bathtubs, toilets, and so on. Particles in the water from the various sources include bacteria, organic matters, and sand which cause the water to be turbid or discoloured in appearance and have an unpleasant odour.... [tags: wastewater, flocculation, alkalinity, flocs]
1053 words (3 pages)
- What are the most effective waste treatment options prior to discharge to receiving bodies of water or the local wastewater treatment facility. Paint manufacturers, to include Sherwin-Williams, produce a variety of different paint types and colors, including both organic solvent-borne and water-borne paints. Each type and color of paint is manufactured in a separate batch, and all manufacturing equipment is generally cleaned between batches to prevent contamination (figure 1-1). This equipment cleaning process is the largest source of waste from paint manufacturing and can account for up to 80% of a paint manufacturer’s waste stream (WMRC, 1992).... [tags: waste minimization, wastewater treatment]
1041 words (3 pages)
- It is hard to imagine that the planet earth could possibly be experiencing an epic crisis of water deficiency. Earth is made up of 75 percent water, why, if water is in so abundant, is it such a precious commodity. Some countries have begun to ration water, while others act as if there is an endless supply. The numbers are very deceiving simply because the water that is in such short supply is fresh water, which is crucial for all aspects of life. "About 97.5% of all water is the saltwater of the oceans and seas.... [tags: biochemistry, environmental issues]
1317 words (3.8 pages)
- ... Organic nitrogen is derived from inorganic sources including nitrite (NO2-), nitrate (NO3-), nitric acid (HNO3), ammonia (NH3), ammonium (NH4+), and nitrogen gas (N2). Microalgae has an ability to convert inorganic nitrogen be only in the forms of nitrite, nitrate and ammonium to organic nitrogen through a process called assimilation. Only eukaryotic algae can perform assimilation . Figure 2.2 describes the assimilation process of inorganic nitrogen. As shown in the figure 2.2, translocation of inorganic nitrogen takes place across the plasma membrane where reduction of nitrate takes place followed by the incorporation of ammonium into amino acids and glutamine.... [tags: nutrients, nitrogen, metals]
1199 words (3.4 pages)
- CHAPTER-3 3.1 Introduction As the given situation describes, eutrophication is a result of the presence of nitrogen and phosphorus in river since no protection methods are carried out to end the release of waste into the water bodies. Such rivers are commonly known as sensitive rivers. These nutrients excite the production of algae providing food for their growth under the accurate circumstances thus causing eutrophication. Eutrophication can harm the ecosystem causing unwanted alteration in aquatic population, extreme reduction of oxygen, health issues to human-beings and animals, expensive water treatment costs and, interfering with recreational signifi... [tags: microorganisms, organic waste]
1314 words (3.8 pages)
- 1.0 INTRODUCTION Recycling water in Canada is an important issue to understand and implement because of its wide ranging benefits in environmental matters. Canadian wastewater can be recycled by water treatments, each of these treatments results in varying water qualities, and these varying water qualities can be reused for industrial, unrestricted access or restricted access uses. Recycling wastewater is a crucial part of sustainable development; however, many communities in Canada are not active participants of this subject.... [tags: Canada, water treatment, environment]
1440 words (4.1 pages)
- ... Also in this process, there is no special method employed during the treatment cycle to remove heavy metals from wastewater. 1.2 Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Heavy metal Contamination 1.2.1 Nitrogen and Phosphorus Contamination (a) Sources Conventional wastewater treatment can remove phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations in wastewater to a limited extent . Discharge of this untreated water leads to high release of nitrates and phosphates into the environment. Agricultural activities are significant contributors for release of nitrates and phosphates to the groundwater in most parts of the United States.... [tags: pollution, environment, technology]
1919 words (5.5 pages)
- The analytical techniques for direct detection, enumeration, isolation and identification many different types of pathogenic bacteria in wastewater and accompanying sludge require well-trained technicians. Also it's usually are unpredictable, difficult, hugely expensive, costly and time-consuming procedures. The task would be enormous if one contemplates the monitoring of hundreds of pathogens and parasites on a routine basis in water and wastewater treatment plants, receiving waters, soils and others environmental samples (Lucero-Ramirez, 2000 and Bitton, 2005).... [tags: Scientific Research ]
1014 words (2.9 pages)
- The world today is faced with a lot of different waste problems. One major problem is how to get rid of the waste safely so that it does not disrupted the environment or hurt people or animals. The major problem for the United States is waste water, the amount, and the cost of treatment and disposal. The United States treats over 1 billion tons of waste a year. How do we treat that much waste. One way it to send the waste water into a treatment plant ran by the state or county. The water contains solid particles, which mixed with the untreated water is called sludge.... [tags: Papers]
492 words (1.4 pages)