The Island of Maui of the Hawaiian Island is the second largest island. The Hawaiian island includes a series of coral atolls, the North-western Hawaiian Islands, and the eight main Hawaiian Islands which are Kahoolawe, Maui, Lanai, Kauai, Ni’haul, Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii.
Figure Map that shows the Hawaiian island chain.
Pollutions occur from the land based sources such as runoff from agricultural fields or farming, human waste products, and sediment. When runoff from the land and enters the seas, sedimentation will occurs. This natural process, have increased of the poor land use and the frequency of these process.
In Hawaii, runoff from land based sources resulted in total sedimentation load which is exceeds than 1 million tons per year. The serious threats to coral reef communities are anthropogenic sedimentation, mainly on tropical islands with steep slopes and high elevations. Sedimentation has been known as the most critical threat to coral reefs in Hawaiian island.
Sedimentation is obtained of the runoff. Runoff developed when large storm and heavy rains, it often convey with it sediment. When soil is exposed, even more sediment is eroded. The sediment goes into the marine environment by streams or coming from hillsides and cliffs. The load of runoff that a given storm obtained depends on the size and slope of watershed, the quantity and amount of the rainfall, order of soil, and land use. The runoff occurs and moves quickly at the steeply sloping watersheds. Accordingly, giving it few time to penetrate into the soil, hence increasing the total amount. The high number of rainfall, the more runoff will produce. When land is disrupted and soil is exposed, more soil is ero...
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...supposedly is finer than the original sand. It contains extra silt that envelope coral heads, suffocating the coral and executes small animals that exist in and around it. While in other projects, beach sand accessibility is limited, forcing consideration of more costly sources.
Figure the beach of the Maui Figure the pipeline that constructed in the Maui.
A second project is constructed along Stable Road, the objectives is trying to slow rather than arrest erosion, it adding 10,000 cubic yards to stop the erosion. The restoration is complex with the occurrence of old seawalls, piles of rocks and other structures. Sand-filled Gesture groins are used to locate that is originally to remain in place for up to 2 years. The pipeline is fasten by concrete blocks that attached by fibers straps. In areas the straps broke, it allowing the pipe to move across the reef.
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