Carl Jung, who is a student of Freud, described that people behave with predictable and understandable ways. Jung built his classification method of people’s personality based on this. According to his belief, people have preference for how to think and feel and these preference will be the basis of people’s style of relationship, working and play (Northouse, 2012, p. 330).
Jung suggested that there are four essential dimensions to evaluate personality. The first is the direction of human energy (to an internal or external direction). The second is the way of how people collect information (in a precise or intuitive way). The third is the way of decision making (in a rational or subjective way). The fourth is the differences between an organized person with plan and spontaneous one without plan (life style) (Northouse, 2012, p. 330). These words were based on the classification of types (also the basis of the MBTI):
Extraversion versus introversion: Preference for deriving energy externally or internally
Sensing versus intuiting: Preference for gathering information in a precise or in an insightful way
Thinking versus feeling: Preference for making decisions rationally or subjectively
Judging versus perceiving: Preference for living in an organized or a spontaneous way (Northouse, 2012, p. 330-331).
The MBTI is a very famous and used personality test all over the world and it was developed by Katharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers. The researcher of the MBTI, Theusen, provided the results from a database of 20,000 scores. They made the questionnaire with various statements and offered them to a variety of organizations in order to survey (Northouse, 2012, p. 334).
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...past experiences affect unceasingly people throughout life (Northouse, 2015, p. 297). People will have behavior preference imprinted in their childhood. This preference will give a guideline in people’s life and at workplace wherever they interact with others. It sometimes arouses confusion to people because they often misuse unconsciously their behavior preference at their job, for example, people behave towards their boss or clients as they do towards parents. The mismatch between the present reality and unconscious behavior preference will be the cause of anxiety, depression, anger, and even aggression (Kets de Vries, 2006, p.40).
The psychodynamic approach is derived from the psychoanalytic approach and this approach uses the concept of the clinical paradigm to find the reason of human behavior, its patterns and the relationship between people (Northouse, 2015).
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