Cardiovascular Disease, Menopause, and Isoflavones Supplementation Essay

Cardiovascular Disease, Menopause, and Isoflavones Supplementation Essay

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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major threat to women in the western world. While breast cancer is more common around the age of menopause, the risk of CVD is 1 in 2, as compared to 1 in 26 for breast cancer. Relevance of CVD in menopausal women is not well understood, but risk factors for CVD can be modified by managing them (hypertension, diabetes) with modification of lipids. Premenopausal women are at low risk for CVD, but probability increases with age. (Dubey et al., 2005). With age comes an increase in weight, which is linked to increased risks of metabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases (Lemay et al., 2010). Estrogen deficiency in the post menopausal phase, is a contributing factor to presence of the metabolic syndrome (Azevedao et al., 2006). Declining estrogen levels result in diverse metabolic and physiologic changes; in particular, the menopausal transition is strongly associated with increased incidence of hypertension and susceptibility to CVD (Gordon et al., 1978). The withdrawal of estrogen has negative effects on the functions and metabolism of the cardiovascular system, which includes including changes from gynoid to an android pattern, reduced glucose tolerance, abnormal plasma lipids, increased blood pressure, increased sympathetic tone, endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation (Rosano et al., 2004). On their own, the individual components of the metabolic syndrome are key CVD risk factors that need to be managed in the menopausal woman (Collins, Rosano, & Casey, 2007). In patients with the metabolic syndrome, management must be intensified since there is an increased risk of accelerated atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular e...

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