Breast Cancer and Herceptin Treatment for HER2-Positive Breast Cancer
Iham Mohamed Kasem
Cells within the body normally divide only to replace old cells or for repair. Cells also divide rapidly in the early years of life until the person has grown into an adult. However, cancer occurs when cells start to grow uncontrollably. Cancer cells continue to grow to form new abnormal cells instead of dying. In addition to that, they can invade other tissues, which is not a feature of normal cells.
Cancer cells arise due to damage to DNA 2. In normal cells, the cell either repairs the DNA or dies due to the damage, however, this does not occur in cancer cells. Instead, the cancer cells continue making new cells that are not needed in the body 2 and form a tumour.
Cancer cells can migrate to other parts of the body, through the bloodstream or lymph vessels, where they form new tumours that replace normal tissue 2. This is known as metastasis.
The Incidence of Breast Cancer
In 2011, 50,285 new incidents of breast cancer occurred in the UK 4. 99% of these cases were female. Within the UK, the Age-Standardised (AS) incidence rate was highest in Scotland and lowest in Northern Ireland for females.
Table INCIDENCE OF BC: Breast Cancer, Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2011
England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 303 11 30 5 349
Crude Rate 1.2 0.7 1.2 0.6 1.1
AS Rate 0.9 0.5 0.9 0.5 0.9
AS Rate - 95% LCL 0.8 0.2 0.6 0.1 0.8
AS Rate - 95% UCL 1.0 0.9 1.2 0.9 1.0
Female Cases 41,523 2,569 4,578 1,266 49,936
Crude Rate 153.9 164.8 169.1 136.9 155.3
AS Rate 124.8 123.3 130.2 118.4 125.1
AS Rate - 95% LCL 123.6 118.5 126.4 111....
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