First, the threat of extreme terror and massacre was imminent throughout Libya. Although Gaddafi was only a symbolic figurehead for the nation, in reality, he exercised near-total control over considerable government decisions. For forty years, Libyans tolerated Gaddafi’s brutal suppression and senseless killings. (McDougall, 2003) Gaddafi’s regime controlled the media and utilized it to distribute propaganda and instill fear. Libyans feared the consequences of criticizing the regime, which included disappearance and exile. Charles Recknagel described Gaddafi’s re...
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Calvocoressi, Peter. (2001). World Politics:1945-2000. Pearson.
McDougall, James. (2003). Nation, Society, and Culture in North Africa. Routledge.
Recknagel, Charles. (2011). “Qaddafi Death Ends Four Decades of Brutality, Eccentric Excess.” Radio Free Europe Documents and Publications (October 20):1.
Joffe, George. (2011). “The End of Autocracy?: The Seeds of Libya’s Civil War: Royal United Services Institute for Defense Studies.” RUSI Journal 156, no.3 (June):12.
Western, Jon. (2011). “Protecting States or Protecting Civilians: The Case for R2P.” The Massachusetts Review 52, no. 4 (July): 348-57.
Black, Ian. (2011). “Gaddafi Urges Violent Showdown.” The Guardian UK-Middle East. (February):1.
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