Bronfenbrenner believed that different aspects of the environment can have different influences on children and their development, he labelled these as the ‘microsystem,’ the ‘mesosystem,’ the ‘exosystem’ and the ‘macrosystem.’ (Upton 2011) The microsystem is the immediate environment that we live in and the social groups and immediate relationships we interact with. This includes family and friends, school and the workplace etc. How the individual responds to others in the microsystem will then affect how they are treated. The next level, the mesosystem, is the ways in which the groups in the microsystem work together to have an effect on development. An example given by Upton 2011, is that if a child’s family and school can work well together to agree on what is best for the child, the child’s development will be well supported and optimal, whereas if the parents and school disagree, the child will be conflicted and so their development may not be as supported. The third level, the exosystem, is the environment that only affects development indirectly, this may be through the parent’s workplace. If a parent gets a promotion, the parent may have to spend more time at work, and less time at home, with the child. The final level is the macrosystem, this is society and the norms and values that surround it. This also refers to the culture of society and any beliefs that that the parents have, or religions they ...
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...methods that apply to all human development (Upton 2011). It allows children to recognise the grammar of their native language, and as the LAD matures over time, the child’s language becomes more complex. (Upton 2011). LAD allows us to recognise rules that are particular for each language, the rules within languages allow humans to generate and understand new phrases/ sentences. Chomsky believed that because all languages share similar/ key rules, structures should be built within the brain as the LAD (Oates 1998). Psychologist Jerome Bruner, agrees with Chomsky 's idea of LAD, and how language can be acquired, however he also believed that the role of the parents played a significant role in the child’s language development (Upton 2011). Bruner called this the ‘Language acquisition support system’ (LASS) which he believes is needed in order for the LAD to function.
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