Brokeback Mountain

Brokeback Mountain

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Setting
"Brokeback mountain Mori" begins in a mental institution, passes through an anonymous motel room and tattoo parlor, and ends in the back of a police car.
Brokeback mountain never explicitly mentions whether Leonard has been in a mental institution (though certain ambiguous clues indicate that perhaps he has). It also passes through motel rooms and tattoo parlors, but it adds other locations, such as Natalie's house, the bar where she works, a diner, and the abandoned building where Leonard kills both Jimmy and Teddy.

Narration
"Brokeback mountain Mori" uses third person limited narration to describe Earl's actions. Though we focus on Earl's actions, we are not privy to his consciousness. However, the italicized letters Earl writes to himself are in first and second person—"I don't know where you'll be when you read this"
(Desmond 2006, p.145) and "You can't have a normal life anymore" (p. 140).
Brokeback Mountain follows this same narration style. The color sequences follow Leonard closely, but we do not get a voice-over during any of the color scenes. It is a third person narration, with Leonard as our filter. (We do get rare glimpses into Leonard's consciousness, however—his memories of his wife's life and death, consideration of whether she may have had diabetes, and a fantasy vision of having succeeded in finding her killer.) We do get a first person voice-over during the first couple black and white scenes, often describing in second-person terms how "you" deal with such a condition







Introduction to adaptation:

The only way to make and understand film is to acquire the skill through experience or education. By doing without knowing the rules of the game, maybe we achieve our goal but it is very risky so right education can guaranty us to get our goal.
As we see in contemporary cinema most of movie coming out are adapted from different medium, based on everything from comic books to the novels and even short stories. They tell and retell the stories through different medium because we interact and reinteract with stories So understand film and how they made it, it is necessary to understand the way literary expression in particular has informed, extended, shaped, and limited it. Century literary expression reveals the influence of the cinema in its structures and styles, themes and motifs, and philosophical preoccupations
In adaptation discourse, we are looking to the film from a different angle, how faithful have been to the original source which is usually a novels or a short story.

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The history of adaptation theory was born with theorists like George Bluestone and Andre Bazin, their theories about the relationship between literature and film are very helpful in identifying the theory and the study of narrative and narrative structure and the ways that these affect our perception.
George Bluestone’s “Novels into Film” defines what is a fundamental difference between the two media? , How camera’s effect on our way of seeing? , How editing effect on the narrative form? , What is a fundamental difference in audience perception of cinematic and literary forms stemming from the differences in their raw materials? He also discusses the two media’s differing ability to handle time and space. He defines language as a medium consisting of three characteristics of time transience, sequence and irreversibility (Bluestone; p.20) what is then narratology and what is the main focus when doing a critical reading through a narratological perspective?
Bluestone therefore gives his definition: he studies of how narratives make meaning, and what the basic mechanisms and procedures are which are common to all acts of story-telling. Narratology, then, is not the reading and interpretation of individual stories, but the attempt study the nature of ‘story’ itself, as a concept and as a cultural practice. Another important issue to mention is the narratological distinction of story and plot. Bluestone explains that there exist between the two media, two fundamentally different ways of seeing, differing materials as well as the different origins, conventions and audiences. Interestingly, it is from what Bluestone sees as “the overtly compatible, secretly hostile” relationship between novel and film that he sees the great potential for the adapter. The ‘story’ is the actual sequence of events as they happen, whereas the ‘plot’ is those events as they are edited, ordered, packaged, and presented in what we recognize as a narrative In other words, the important issues at hand when doing a critical reading from a narratological perspective are the notions of plot and again according to Bluestone, “…the adapter is not so much a translator but a new author.” (p15, Jenkins).

The Nature of Adaptation, Characters, focalization, narrator, how time is handled within the story (flashbacks, flash forwards), and framed narratives. These issues will all be discussed in following analysis.





The Nature of Adaptation
The challenges of adapting a short story into a two-hour (or longer) movie are almost the opposite of those faced when adapting a novel. The story told in a novel can be complex, with many plotlines weaving in and out of each other, providing the screenwriter with an often difficult choice of what to cut and what to leave in. Streamlining a novel to fit into the constraints of a screenplay length narrative is usually an exercise in almost brutal condensation. Short stories, on the other hand, offer much less source material to start with so the adaptation of Brokeback Mountain is a "point of departure" adaptation. That is, the film takes only the short story's premise of two cowboys in love as we've seen in the film, it has kept much of the same narration style, but has greatly changed the events of the story, added a number of new characters, explored new settings, expanded the style, and even modified the theme. This would seem to imply an "unfaithful" modification of the original. However, as Bluestone argue, an absolutely "faithful" adaptation is not possible between two different media.
Literature is a one track medium, invoking "unfixed" images that is, many specific details are supplied by the reader. On the other hand, film is a five track medium of fixed, specific images and sounds. Invariably, this fixed experience does not exactly mirror that invoked by the literary source material. Therefore, we cannot view an adaptation as a literal transposing, but should instead consider it as a kind of translation.
Yet even a casual "translation" of "Brokeback mountain`s short story " would not produce the expanded Brokeback mountain.
This is partly because any adaptation of a short story to a feature-length film will require additional material to bring it up to the required running time (Novels into Film 1957).

(Novels into Film 1957) we can really say adapted works are less "original" than their source. He points out that many revered and respected works from such authors and auteur as Shakespeare, Copula, Kubrick, and Disney are based on earlier material, yet remain distinctly their own, unique works. Additionally, works in any media rely on the collective conventions established by their preceding works. Bluestone points out that we are rarely adapting only a single text at a time and even source texts are themselves intertexts. This intertextuality in Brokeback Mountain is most apparent when we consider its film Western elements.



What is the Challenge for adapting Short story to film?

The element of change that is most likely to strike the reader of the short story when watching the film is the fleshing out, Brokeback Mountain is faith full adaptation of Annie Proulx story into a feature film. Her’s story summarizes large portions of the lives and relationships of Jack and Ennis, leaving much to the reader's imagination. In the screenplay is remarkably true, from character sketches to the dialogue. In expanding a 30 page story to 134 minutes of feature script spanning twenty years, some characters who were just sketched in a couple of lines are developed into bigger parts and scenes were added to mark the passing of time.
There are many story elements in common between the short story and the film. Both revolve around a two cowboys and their lifelong love for each other.
Also many of these incidents are spelled out in more detail. The men's marriages and relationships with their wives and wives' families, Jack's sojourns to Mexico, and other elements of their lives when they're not together are given more attention in the movie.

One of the additions is the second lovemaking scene between Ennis and Jack in the tent on Brokeback Mountain. Ang Lee has talked of the necessity of adding this second scene as a way of showing the men commit to their relationship. Another change in the adaptation of story to script is in the characterization and casting of Jack. In Proulx's short story, he's described as a far tougher, gruffer character than the more articulate romantic lead in the script. It's a change that serves to heighten the contrast between the two characters and make for a far more emotional love story.
Still, the screenplay stays on track with the story as Proulx presents it. Some details are extrapolated or added, but for the most part the screenplay expansion grows organically from the source material. Because Proulx leaves a clear road map for her characters so the screenwriters Larry McMurtry and Diana Ossana were able to fill in the details along that through line, and did a compelling job of it.

Characters: Static/Dynamic, Flat/Rounded
Focalization
Narrator and Voiceover
Brokeback Mountain is a story told by an omniscient narrator. The narrative is realistic in tone and employs description, metaphor and dialogue to examine the actions, thoughts, emotions, and motivations of its main characters.
The narrative is mostly linear; the story describes events in sequence from a beginning point in time, the year 1963 when the characters are introduced, to the end of the story some 20 years later. Other than the title location, the settings are actual locations in the United States, and the characters are described as real people living in a specific milieu. The story adheres to conventions of modern dramatic fiction; its literary devices serve to present a portrait of recognizable people in familiar situations, without supernatural or metaphysical allusions (while other of the "Wyoming Stories" do include passages of magical realism).
Descriptions of scenery and characters are not accounted for by a voiceover in the film, the camera conveys the text’s scenic descriptions through its photography; sounds and visual effects help tell the story and create mood to the audience and writer does not have this tools so the shift in media inevitably leads to a change in discourse.

Handling of Time: Framed Narrative, Flashbacks and Flash Forwards
Soundtrack
Summary and Conclusion
If an audience who had never read the short story would attempt to describe and summarize what they saw in the film, they would not necessarily use the same adjectives as Annie Proulx, but surely they would use words that are synonymous with hers. In other words, what McMurtry and Ossana saw as most important when writing their adaptation was that they would stay as true as possible to the core of the original and not intrude on the storyline of Brokeback Mountain.
All significant moments are kept intact, to mention a few there are Jack’s and Ennis’ first meeting, their first sexual experience together as well as their first separation to the fights they have and finally Jack’s death.
However, as conclusion in my objective book is better because Jack Twist and Ennis del Mar were really rather dull fellows, and their family lives, when they were in the movie's flatlands (which was most of the time), were drearily miserable in predictable ways. Proulx merely touched contrastingly on that quotidian aspect of their existence and kept the focus on their increasingly tormented romance. And the movie is better because Proulx was a realist, not much interested in the glories of mountain landscapes. Director Ang Lee is a romantic, and his realizations of the high country where the cowboys herd sheep and fall in love have a transformative effect on the story. He makes you believe those rough, crude guys might just possibly achieve passion and tenderness in those breathtaking locales.

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