Since the barbarian invasions of Attila in the V century, Europe had forgotten that from the steppes of Asia could come a danger that calls into question Western civilization
The seventeenth century was the era of Genghis Khan, son of a chief of a small confederation of nomadic tribes of the Siberian steppe, when he died was relegated by an impostor and had to fight to regain the post he had corresponded him for the death of his father.
In 1196 Temujin, a head of Mongolian clan, was elected khan or kan (sovereign) by an assembly of tribes. In a few years he submitted to his authority to all Turkish and Mongol tribes living around Baikal, and in 1206 was proclaimed khagan (supreme ruler) by all communities, and adopted the name Genghis Khan (universal sovereign). He organized his new state on two pillars.
The men were divided into new units, breaking the traditional tribal groupings, which gave cohesion to the whole, reinforced by the presence of the 10,000 Bahadur, Khan 's personal guard. Mobility and simplicity of this army and the organization of an efficient postal system (yam) allowed quickly move large numbers of troops over long distances and concentrate on the enemy by surprise, with devastating effects.
The Mongol army was remarkably self-sufficient. The soldiers were traveling with his family, so that the army consisted of a huge crowd of travelers without reason or need to go home. His military tactics were based on techniques to hunt animals nomadic group.
Mongol forces moved into one line, around a region and then approached from all sides, so that no one could escape its encirclement.
Thanks to the careful planning of their militar...
... middle of paper ...
...ot practiced agriculture and had no cities or permanent settlements. Shamanism and the worship of natural phenomena were their primary religious practices
These circumstances led to the Mongolians founded rarely States, although some exceptions were given. Like other nomadic peoples, the Mongols were excellent archers and horsemen. Turned into a warrior force, its extreme mobility and speed made them a serious threat to any army. As a result they succeeded in founding ephemeral States at various times, as the kingdom of Yen (IV century), the empire juan-juan (centuries V and VI) or the kihtan (X and XI centuries) north of China, or the kara-kitai (XI and XII) in Central Asia. Because of internal instability and pressure from other nomads, often egged on by the Chinese empire, these states would disappear quickly, and Mongol tribes returned to their nomadic existence.
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