Breast Cancer : Disease Control And Prevention Essay

Breast Cancer : Disease Control And Prevention Essay

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According to statistics published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2013, breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) estimates that in the United States in 2014, approximately 235,000 new cases were diagnosed (2,360 in men) and approximately 40,000 deaths occurred as a consequence of the disease (Crawford). Breast cancer is a type of cancer that forms from breast tissue and primarily affects women. The fact that breast cancer is becoming so common and affecting so many people’s lives makes it so interesting. It is definitely one disease that needs as much research as it can get so we can start working towards better prevention and treatment.
Cancer begins in individual cells within a tissue that reproduces abnormally as a direct result of genetic changes and in response to an abnormal cause. Abnormal cells arise in the ductal tissue of the breast in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). This condition may progress to invasive infiltrating ductal carcinoma if the tumor breaks through the lining of the milk ducts and invades the fatty tissue of the breast. In the normal process of development during puberty, the ductal tissue develops in response to the hormone estrogen that is produced by the ovaries. Similarly, the growth of lobular tissue in the breast is stimulated by the hormone progesterone. Tumors that arise in this tissue are called lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). This type of cancer begins in the lobules that produce milk and may progress to infiltrating invasive lobular carcinoma. During the process of development or tissue renewal, cells of the breast may undergo genetic changes that ultimately give...


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...on or replication in dividing cells by producing changes in the structure or integrity of the DNA molecule. Unlike radiation, chemotherapy is a systemic form of cancer treatment that is directed at metastatic tumors and cancer cells that may have spread to various sites within the body. Many chemotherapeutic drugs have been used in the treatment of breast cancer and may be administered intravenously, either individually or in combinations, over a period of weeks to months in an attempt to destroy any remaining cancer cells following surgery or radiation. Both radiation and chemotherapy may produce significant side effects, such as anemia, hair loss, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, weight loss, and mouth sores. These side effects occur because radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs target not only cancer cells but also all cells within the body that are actively dividing.

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